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Vol XXIX. PUBLISHED MONTHLY. No. 9 



The Journal 



OF THE 



Ministry of AgrSctilture 



DECEMBER, 1922. 

PRINCIPAL CONTENTS. 

(For Complete List of Contents Bee page uii.) paob 

Home-Grown Corn and Potatoes for Live Stock. T. B, 

Wood, C.B.E., ALA., F.I.C, FM.S. 780 

When should the Fanner Sell Home-Grown Foods ? A, G. 

Rustoriy B.A.f D.Sc, and /. S. Simpson, B.Sc. - - . - 733 

The Imperial Fruit Show. ^. V, Taylor, B.Sc. . . . 733 

Electro-Culture - - - - - - - - - 792 

Improvement of Moorland Grazing in the North of Eng- 
land* Professor D. A. Gilchrist 797 

Labour on the Farm. II. A. G.Rusion, B.A., D.Sc, and J.S. 

Simpson, B.Sc. . - - - - . . . . gQl 

Council of Agriculture for Wales 808 

The Duck as an Egg Producer. A. t. Johnson - . - 812 

Dry-Meal Hoppers for Pigs. Captain CaXicott Reilly, B.Sc. - 816 

The Crate-Rod and Barrel-Hoop Trades. Katharine S. Woods 819 

Seeds and Good Crops. Leslie E. Cook, n.d.a. , - . 826 

Spring-Tails attacking Mangolds - . - . . 828 

Liquorice Growing. David G. McLier 830 

The First Year's Working of the Seeds Act, 1920- II. . 832 

Manures for December. Sir John Russell, D.Sc, F.R.S. - - 836 

Feeding Stuffs for December. E. T. Hainan, M.A., Dip. Agric 

{Cantab.) - 840 




LONDON: 

PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE, 
AND PUBLISHED BY THE MINISTRY OP AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES. 

(To be obtained from the Ministry's Offices, 10, Wiiiteha/I Place, London, S.W.I.) 



IDZTORIIL AND 

rzLhi\mim ot7ioes : 

10, WEZTZHALL FLACE, 
LONDOIT, S.W. 1. 



MONTHLY, 

[PRICE SIIPEHCE.] 

Post free. 



ASENTS rOR ADVEETISZKEITTS : 

C. VERNON & SONS, Ltd., 

98, EolboPD Vlafluct, E.C. 1 ; 
66/62, South Outle Street, Liverpool. 



THE JOUENAL OF THE MimSTBY OF AGmCTJLTVRB.^ Advertisements. 



J-ilTS/L 



BUY ONLY THE BEST. 




The BUXTON LIME FIRMS Co, Ltd. 

ROYAL EXCHANGE, BUXTON. 



Telegrams— BUXTON LIME, BUXTON. 'Phone— 312 BUXTON. 



THE PUREST LIME KNOWN IN 
COMMERCE AND THE LARGEST 
OUTPUT OF LIME AND LIMESTONE 
IN THE WORLD. 



LIME BURNT IN SPECIAL KILNS FOR 

SPECIAL TRADES. 

Agriculturists, Florists and Fruit Growers 

catered for specially- 



AGENTS THROUGHOUT GREAT BRITAIN. 
Lime in any Famt^ in any Quantity to suit Useri» 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF kGBlCJJUTVRE.— Advertisements. 



I 




I 




For sates and prices apply to — 

The Alsace Lorraine Development 
and Trading Company, Limited 

(Sole Agents for TJniteil Kingdom 
and Colonias"). 

Pinners Hall, Old Broad Street, E.C.2. 

For information and Publications re 
use of Potash apfjiij to : 

The Agricultural Information 
Bureau for the French Potash 
Mines, Dashwood House, New 
Broad Street, London. E.C.2. 




AN EXCELLENT TOP 
DRESSING FOR GRASS 
LAND 

is French Kainit l-^^j^appVied 
together with Basic Slag or 
Superphosphate during the 
autumn or winter months. 
The Combined Dressing tells 
on all Classes of Grasps Land. 

AUTUMN SOWN CROPS 

Always derive great benefit from Potash 
Manuring. 

(The Rich Sj-lvinites) Muriate of Potash 
50 and 6U per cent. Sulphate of Potash. 



30% and 4<0% 




HIGH GRADE 




SEMER 




asic 





LEEDS PHOSPHATE WORKS E 

LEEDS Yorks 



TD 



TJIE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF Advertisements. 



ECONOMICAL LIGHTING 

"ATOZ" ACETYLENE PLANT 

is ensured together with complete satisfaction and comfort. 
**ATOZ " Plant will light your House for the least amount, 
this applies to maintenance as well as first cost. Extremely 
simple, requires no skilled attention, and is perfectly safe 

Every ^^ATOZ Plant is guaranteed, 
There is an ^^ATOZ " Plant of size and 
capacity for every requirement :: 

Write us to-day for full particulars : 

THE ACETYLENE CORPORATION, LTD., 
49, VICTORIA STREET, WESTMINSTER, S.W.I 




FOK THE COKSTRTICTIOX OF 



CONGRET 




FARM BUILDINGS 

IS NOT SPENT, BUT INVESTED. 

THE SAYING IN MAINTENANCE REPAYS 
THE OUTLAY AND PAYS AN INTEREST. 

Illustrated pamphlets, giving instructions for carrying out all Farm Constructional Work 
in Concrete, may be obtained, post free, on application to 

THE CONCRETE UTILITIES BUREAU, 

Dept. 1b, 

35, GREAT ST. HELENS, LONDON, E.G. 3. 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF XGBlCJJhTJJBE.— Advertisements. 



Ill 




l€ of flnMonifl 

S ^np BUMPER 

:v; - SECURES 

M/^RVEST 



is Dry - It does not Cake 

It is Acid-free 
does not absorb Atmospheric 

Moisture 
can be readily Drilled into 
the Soil 
/t is guaranteed to contain 
25 % Ammonia. 



For prices a7td all details apply to ■• 

(Department M.A.t 

South Metropolitan G-as Company, 

709. OLD KEITT ROAD. LONDOK S.E.15. 




FERTILISERS 

British Manufactured 

POTASH SALTS, Minimum 12 % Pure Potash. 



20% 



MURIATE OF POTASH, 50 % and 60 % Pure Potash. 
SULPHATE OF POTASH 

FLUE DUST, Containing 18/25% Sulphate. 

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY FROM WORKS. 



The . . 

BRITISH CYANIDES CO. LTD. 

SALES OFFICE: 49, QUEEN VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, E.C.4. 

Works a.t OLDBURY, near BIRMINGHAM. 



lY THE JOUENAL OF THE MINISTKY OF AGRICULTURE.— .lf/rr///,sY / 



Note carefully the analysis of the Compound 
Manure you order and ensure satisfactory 
results by selecting a mixture containing 

Ammonia in the form of 

DRY 

NEUTRAL 




ORDER NOW 

Price for December Deliveries 

£16 13s. 

per ton 

(Basis : 2o|% Ammonia, 
4 ton lots minimum.) 



1.— 


-It is in fine, dry con- 
dition. 


2.- 


-It is free from acid 
(maximum -025%). 


3.- 


-It will keep indefin- 
itelyanri DOES NOT 
ROT THE BAGS. 


4.- 


-It is sold on a basis 
of 25|% AMMONIA. 


5.- 


-It is free from lumps 
and ready for instant 
use. 


6.- 


-It can be emptied 
direct from bag into 
distributor. 



Write for leaflets to 

S/ AMMONIA, 30, GROSVENOR GARDENS, LONDON, S.W.I. 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AOmCVhTU'RE.— Advertisements. v 



THE 

AGRICULTURAL MARKET REPORT 

PREPARED AND EDITED DY 
THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES. 

A WEEKLY PUBLICATION which provides farmers 
with accurate reports on the trade in agricultural pro- 
duce and requisites at various representative markets 
in England and Wales. 

Average prices week b)' week at selected markets are 
furnished by Market Reporters specially appointed by 
the Ministry, and in addition special articles on agri- 
cultural conditions at home and abroad, likely to affect 
the demand for and prices of British produce, are 
included each week. 



SUBSCRIPTION RATES.— One year I OS.; six months 
5s. ; three months 2s. 6d. (post free). Single copies 
may be obtained upon application, price 3d. (post free). 
Orders should be sent direct to 



I/.M, STATIONERY OFFICE, IMPERIAL 
HOUSE, KINGS WAY. LONDON, W.C.2. 



VI 



THE JOUENAL OF THE MINISTEY OF AGEICULTURE 



— AdvertiseiJicnts. 



Make That Garden of Yours 

AS PKOFITABLE AND AS LOVELY AS THE ONE YOU HAVE 
SO OFTEN ADMHiED. YOU CAN DO [T IF YOU SOW ONLY 

. . . TOOGOOD'S . . . 
Guaranteed Garden Seeds 

They cost no more to buy, and ensure every Garden doing its best. A^egetables, enough to 
share and to spare, and of more delicious quality. Flowers, a perennially gay display, 
rivalling in charm the Garden of your dreams. Your joy over one perfect feature has not 
subsided before you discover that another and yet another have reached the same high plane. 

FREE— Write to-day 

Send a postcard to-day for an absolutely free copy of our 160-page " GUIDE TO GARDEN 
WISDOM AND GUARANTEED GARDEN SEEDS." Indispensable for your Garden ; 
and EVERY packet of Seeds ordered thence MUST grow for YOU and please you or you will 
get it REPLACED FREELY. Ask for our Free Fruit, Hose and other Tree Guide also, if 
desired. No obligation of any sort. Just address us personally : 

T O O O- O O 33 «to SOiyS, 3L-T3D. 

Seedsmen to H.M. The King, and Growers of "Better Crops" Seeds only, 

SOUTHAMPTON 



Farm Lands in Canada 



THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY 

(Colonisation Department) 
MAKE IT EASY 
for the British farmer and farm worker 
TO SETTLE IN CANADA. 

Easy terms of payment spread over 20 years if desired. 
Loans to settlers towards the cost of permanent improvements. 

Excellent land within easy distance of 
schools, churches, markets, towns, etc. 

Farms can be selected in the best agricultural districts. 
CONDUCTED PARTIES TO VIEW THE LAND AT FREQUENT INTERVALS. 

Eegular steamship sailings from Liverpool, Glasgow and Southampton. 

Money transferred at lowest rates. 

Fop full partieulaps and Illustrated Pamphlets apply to:— 

THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY, 

Colonisation and Development Department, 

62-65, Charing" Cross, London, S.W.I; or Local Agents. 



VIl 

CONTENTS. 



Notes fok the Month — I'Aut 



Appoint I iient of Next- Minister — Priine Minister's Letter to the Xdtional 
Farmers' Union — Importation of Canadian Cattle — Agricultural 
Wages and Cost of Living — Production of Lax^tose from JVhei/ — 
Field Di'ainage Investigations — Sub- Soiling Investigations — The 

Agricultural Index Nuiaber — Corn Sales Act, 1921 ... ... 7H9 

Home-Grown Cokn and Potatoes foi; Live Stock. 7\ B. Jf'ood, 

C.B.E., M,A., F.I.C., F.R.S 780 

When should the Farmer Sell Home-(Jro\vn Foods? A. G. liusfon, 

B.A., D.Sc, and J". aS*. Simpson, B.Sc 783 

The Imi'Erlvl Fruit Show. H. V. Taijlor, B.Sc 788 

KIlectro-Culture 792 

Improvement of Moorland Grazing in the Xorth of Kncland. 

Professor D. A. Gilchrist ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 797 

Labour on the Farm. II A. G. PMston, B.A., B.Sc, and /. S. 

Simpson, B.Sc. ... ... ... ■.. ... ... ... ... 801 

Council of Agriculture for Wales ... 808 

The Duck as an Eg(; Producer. A. T. Johnson 812 

Dry-Meal Hoppers for Pigs. Captain Callcott Reilly, B.Sc 816 

The Crate-Rod and Barrel-Hoop Trades. Katharine S, Woods ... 819 

Seeds and Good Crops. Leslie E. Cook, N.I). A. ... 826 

Spring-Tails attacking Mangolds ... 828 

Liquorice Growing. David G. Mclver ... ... ... ... ... 830 

The First Year's Working of the Seeds Act, 1920. II 832 

Notes on Manures for December. Sir John Russell, D.Sc , F.R.S. 836 
Notes on Feeding Stuffs for December. E. T. Hainan, M.A., Dip. 

Agric. (Cantab.) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 840 

Register of Dairy Cattle ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 843 

Prices of Apples ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .. 844 

Small Holdings in Essex ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 844 

The Market for Poultry Feathers 845 

Probable Yield of Potato and Root Crops ... ... ... ... 846 

Test of A^arieties of Fruit for Commercial Purposes ... ... ... ... 847 

Serum Treatment for Swine Fever ... .., ... ... ... ... 848 

Importation of Onion and Leek Seed ... ... ... ... ... ... 849 

Conciliation Committees ... ... ... ... ... •-. ... 849 



Agriculture Abroad — 

Ne7v Agrarian Legislation for Central Europe — Expenditure of the 
U.S.A. Department for Agriculture, 1922-23 — Apjrropriations for 
Agriculture in Canada — Dairying in Nova Scotia — Injurious 
Weeds in Manitoba — Fall in Agricultural Wages in U.S.A. — 



Titaber Seasoning Invention ... ... ... ... ... 851 

Licensing of Stallions under the Horse Breeding Act, 1918 ... ... 858 

Produce of Crops in England and Wales, 1922 ... .. ... ... 861 

Produce of Hops, 1922 863 

Foot-and-Mouth Disease ... ... ... ... .. ... ... 863 

Agricultural Reseanih Scholarships and Fellowships ... ... ... 864 

International Poultry E.xhibition ... ... ... ... ... ... 864 



Any of the Articles in this Journal 7nay he reproduced in any registered 
newspaper or public periodical without special permission, provided that the source 
is acknowledged in each case. 

The Ministry does not accept responsibility for the views exj^rcssed and the 
statements made by contributors, nor for any statements made in the advertisement 
columns of this Journal. 



Yiii THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE.— Advertisements. 




Telegrams : 
"PAG AN IN I, CANNON, LONDON." 

Telephone: AVENUE 1729 (3 lines). 



47-51, KING WILLIAM 

LONDON, E.G. 4. 



WHY ? ? 

is steam draining the clieapest and best ? 

BECAUSE Steam draining, if carefully carried out, is efficient, permanent 
and cheap. 

Instances can be given where drains put in many years ago 
are as good to-day as when put in. 

Steam draining can be done to any desired depth, 2 ft. 6 in. 
or more if necessary. 

The diameter of bore is three-and-a-half to four inches, as against 
two inches by smaller implements. 

It is not to be compared with shallow small bore draining done 
by other methods. 

The shallow and smaller drain is liable to be crushed and fill in. 

The area of a steam drain is 9*62 square inches as compared with 3*14 
square inches, and its percolating area is increased proportionately. 

JVhen considering draining, apply to: 
The Secretary, 

STEAM CULTIVATION DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION, 

28, Victoria Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 1. 

JTho would supply names of reliable steam draming contractors in your tieighbourhooc 



THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE 



Vol. XXIX. No. 9. 



DECEMBER, 1922. 



NOTES FOR THE MONTH. 

Consequent on the appointment of Sir Arthur Boscawen as 
Minister of Health, Lt.-Col. Sir Eobert A Sanders, M.P., 
A oint entof f^™®^^y Under Secretary of State for 
■^/^ 4. War, has been appointed Minister of 

New Minister. . . ' ^ n t^- e • 

Agriculture and Jbisneries. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of iincaster has been re-appointed 
Parliamentary Secretary to the Ministry. 

****** 

The following letter addressed by the Prime Minister to the 

National Farmers' Union, in reply to an inquiry asking for a 

_ . A f definition of his attitude to agricultural 

Prime Minister's 1 1- i i • 

. questions, was published m the Press on 

Letter to the , u 
National November : — 

Farmers' Union ' ^^^^ further reference to your 

letter of the 24th ult., I am desired by 
the Prime Minister to say that he regrets that it has not 
been possible in the short time available for the Government 
to come to a final decision as to what measures can be taken 
to assist the agricultural industry. 

The Government fully realizes the grave difficulties with 
which agriculture is faced, but it must be recognized that 
such remedies as subsidies or protective duties on foodstuffs 
are out of the question under present circumstances. 

' ' At the same time , there are certain directions along 
which, in the opinion of the Prime Minister, the Government 
might usefully explore the possibility of helping this great 
industrv. These are : — 



(4(>1<)8). P.1./D.3. 10,500. ]L'/2-?. S. 



A 



770 



Tmpoktation of Canadian Cattle. 



[Dec, 



"'An inquiry with all reasonable dispatch into the subject 
of agricultural rating and the removal of any unfairness which 
might be found to exist. 

" The promotion of co-operation in the transport and sale 
of agricultural produce. 

The encouragement of improved credit facilities to agri- 
culturists and the promotion of education and research. 

" Useful results might also be obtained from an inquiry 
into the causes of the great disparity between the price re- 
ceived by the farmer for his produce and that paid by the 
consumer of food. All these questions are being carefully 
examined, and there will be no avoidable delay in coming 
to a decision as to the form in which assistance on such lines 
can best be given. 

' ' On these lines the Prime ^linister believes that it should 
be possible to build the foundations of a permanent and 
stable agricultural policy, which will enable the enterprise 
and industry of the agricultural community to work out its 
own salvation under fair and reasonable conditions." 

* * . * * * * 

It has already been announced* that the British and Canadian 

representatives at the Cattle Conference agreed as to the condi- 

. ^. , tions that should applv to the importation 
Importation of £ f n a " 

^ ■.. ^ 01 cattle irom Canada. 

Canadian Cattle. rn\ ^ i i ^ .c t i 

The aefreenient has now been ratiiiecl bv 

the new Cabinet and by the Prime Minister of Canada, and the 
following summary of the agreement has, with the assent of the 
Canadian authorities, been authorised for publication : — 

Canadian store cattle (i.e , animals born and reared in 

Canada and rendered incapable of breeding) are to be admitted 

under the following restricti(ms : — 

(1) The shipment must be from a Canadian port and direct 
to a port in Great Britain. 

(2) For three days immediately before shipment and during 
the voyage the animals are to be kept separate from other 
animals and periodically examined by a veterinary officer of 
the Dominion. A thorough examination immediatelv before 
shipment is to be made by the Dominion veterinary officer, 
who will eertifv that the animals are not affected with cattle 
plague, pleuro-pneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, or mange. 
During the voyage the examination is to be made daily. 

* This Joimial, November.* 1922, p. 670. 



fClOO l 



Importation of Canadian Cattle. 



771 



(3) The iiriimals are to be landed at specified landing places 
and there thoroughly examined by the Ministry's veterinary 
officers. Movement from the landing place is to be controlled 
by licence in the same manner as the movement of imported 
Irish cattle is at present controlled. This secm'es detention of 
the animals on some farm or o!"her premises for six days, 
though they may pass to such premises through one market. 
The agreement makes provision to secure that the vessels used 
shall not be capable of infecting the cargo and also provides for 
effective action if disease should be found in a cargo. 

The landing of Canadian cattle capable of breeding will require 
the authority of a General Order which will be made by the 
Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and laid in draft before 
both Houses of Parliament for thirty days, and if either House 
before the expiration of that period presents an address to His 
Majesty against the draft or any part thereof, no further proceed- 
ings shall be taken thereon. It is an essential part of any such 
order that the animals must be accompanied by a certificate by 
the authorised officer of the Dominion stating that the animals 
have within one month before shipment been tested effectively 
for tuberculosis and found free from that disease, and the 
Minister is given the fullest discretion as to the precautions to 
he enforced against the introduction of other diseases by these 
minima Is. 

The Minister is to retain the power to suspend importation of 
store and breeding animals if cattle plague, pleuro-pneumonia, or 
ioot-and-mouth disease should appear in Canada. 

A fee not exceeding sixpence per animal is to be imposed on 
all imported animals, and compensation is not payable in case 
'Of slaughter at the place of landing in consequence of disease 
being discovered. For administrative purposes imported animals 
are to be tagged or otherwise marked. 

The Canadian Ministers at the Conference undertook that as 
soon as the necessary Order authorising importation of Canadian 
breeding stock is in force, the Canadian Government will modify 
their conditions of importation of British animals so as to make 
the Canadian and British conditions reciprocal. 

The Conference assented to the view that legislation on this 
subject cannot be limited to Canada but must be capable of adap- 
tation to the requirements of other parts of the British Empire. 
****** 

A "J 



772 Agricultural Wages^ Prices and Cost of Living. [Dec, 



lis view of the present interest in agricultural wages, the 
following article is reprinted from the Agricultural Market 
Report : — 

In recent discussions as to agricultural wages, reference is 
usually made on the one hand to the fall in the prices of 

. . , agricultural produce and on the other to 

Agricultural ^ ^ 
Wages Prices ^^^^ ^^^^ hymg. The farmers point out 
and the ^^^^ they are receiving lower prices and 
Cost of Livin cannot consequently continue to pay the 
°* same rate of wages as before, while the 
w^orker replies that the cost of living has not fallen materially 
and that he cannot live in comfort on a reduced wage. Whilst 
conditions vary in different localities and general figures are by 
no means applicable to individual cases, the Ministry thinks it 
will be of interest to make such broad comparisons as are 
possible between the average rates of agricultural wages, the 
average prices of farm produce, and the cost of living. 

For this purpose the agricultural index number which is 
published monthly by the Ministry is taken as the best indica- 
tion of the changes in the prices of agricultural produce, and 
for the cost of living the index number issued by the Ministry 
of Labour is used. The former shows the average increase in 
the wholesale prices of British produce sold off the farm in 
England and Wales, while the latter represents the average 
increase in the cost of maintaining the pre-war standard of 
living of working-class families. 

In order to make a comparison with these figures the average 
earnings of ordinary farm workers in England and Wales in 
1914 have been taken at 18s. per week. This figure is based 
on the assumption that the average weekly cash wages of 
ordinary agricultural labourers in 1914 were about 16s. 9d., 
and that, in addition, the labourer received certain allowances 
which w^ere wwth on the average about Is. 3d. per week. 
Precise accuracy in this matter cannot be attained, but a con- 
sideration of the statements made by various authorities sug- 
gests that 18s. may be taken as a fairly approximate figure. 
Comparative figures for 1921-1922 can be based on the rates of 
wages fixed by Conciliation Committees in areas where agTee- 
ments have been reached, and on estimates of prevailing wages 
in the other areas, weighted by the number of workers in the 
different districts, while for some intervening years the rates 
fixed by the Agricultural Wages Board can be used. Taking 
in the first place the seven years from 1914 to 1921 the move- 



1922.] Agricultueal Wages, Prices and Cost of Living. 773 



meiit of wages, prices and cost of living was approximately as 
follows : — 

Percentage Increase as Comtarkd with Pre-war Pates. 

Agricultural Prices of Agri- Cost of 



Month. 




Wages. 


cultural Produce. 


Living 


August 


1017 


39 


97 


80 


July 


11)18 


()9 


123 


105 


May 


1911) 


110 


132 


105 


April 


1920 


139 


199 


132 


August 


1920 


.. ■ 160 


177 


155 


September ... 


1921 


135 


116 


120 


October 


1921 


122 


86 


110 


November 


1921 


110 


79 


103 


December 


1921 


105 


76 


99 



It will be seen that agricultural wages rose but slowly and 
failed to keep pace with the increase in the cost of living up 
to May, 1919, when an adjustment was made which brought 
them somewhat above that figure. The further increases in 
wages granted in 1920 appear to have maintained them above 
the cost of living figures, and notwithstanding the subsequent 
decline the rates were on the whole favourable to the workers 
up to the end of 1921. 

If a comparison is made between wages and the prices of 
farm produce, it will be seen that while the latter rose much 
more rapidly than wages, they also fell more rapidly, so that 
by the end of 1921 they had reached a lower level than either 
wages or the cost of living. At the beginning of 1922 a re- 
adjustment took place which brought wages more closely into 
relation with farm prices, but left them rather below the 
increase in the cost of living. 

Percentage Increase as Compared wrin Pre-war Pates. 



Month. 


Agricultural 


Prices of Agri- 


Cost of 


1922. 


W ages. 


cultural Produce. 


Living. 


January ... 


86 


75 


92 


February 


83 


79 


88 


March 


80 


77 


86 


April 


79 


70 


82 


May 


78 


71 


81 


June 


78 


68 


80 


July 


78 


72 


84 


August ... 


76 


67 


81 


September 


75 


57 


79 


October ... 


60 


59 


78 



The movement in the spring and summer of 1922 was slowly 
downward, but during October wages have been appreciably 
reduced in almost all districts with the result that, on the 



774 



Production of Lactose from Whey 



[Dec^. 



average, the}' are now not more than 60 per cent, above the 
pre-war level, an increase which is almost exactly comparable 
with the position as regards farm produce, but appreciably 
below the increase in the cost of living. 

The figures for wages given above are averages for the coun- 
try as a whole, but as is well known the pre-war rates of wages 
varied considerably in different districts and this variation still 
continues (though to a somewhat less extent than was 
formerly the case) the areas where exceptionally low rates were 
formerly paid having benefited by a rise proportionately greater 

than tiiat obtained in the better paid areas. 

******* 

In January, 1919, the Ministry, on the recommendation of the 

Development Commissioners, obtained Treasury authority to 

, o establish and conduct an experimental 

Production of ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^t. 

_ . o Lactose Factory, ejrants tor the purpose 

Lactose from , . -j -, r ^ I t? a 

bemg provided from the Development iumd. 

^' A site for the factory was thereupon ob- 

tained at Haslington. near Crewe, adjoining the premises of a 
co-operative cheese factory, but owing to unavoidable delay in 
carrying out the necessary building work and in obtaining suit- 
able plant, etc., the Lactose Factory did not commence work 
until February, 1921. 

The object of the Factory is to experiment in the extraction 
of lactose and other products from whey, and to ascertain the 
economic possibilities of the processes adopted. 

The circumstances which caused the Ministrv to think that 
it was both necessarv and desirable to establish a factorv of this 
kind are as follows : — 

(1) One of the phases in the development of the dairying 
industry which has taken place during recent years is the 
establishment throughout the country of dairy depots. Some 
of these depots are owned co-operatively by farmers, and others 
belong to private individuals or companies. Some depots have 
been expressly established for the manufacture of cheese ; 
others are for the purpose of dealing with " surplus " milk, 
often bv convertino; it into cheese, and the result has been the 
concentration of cheese-making at depots instead of at farm 
dairies as heretofore. 

Cheese-making gives rise to a by-product — whey — which 
in bulk amounts to about 85 per cent, of the milk used. It 
therefore follows that the concentration of cheese-making 
results in a large bulk of whey being produced at the depots. 



ll)-2-2.] 



Field Drainage Investigations. 



775 



When cheese-making takes place on farms, the whey, which 
has a considerable food value, is largely used for pig-feeding, 
but in the case of depots the amount is too great for it to be used 
in this manner ; also, owing to its bulk and the cost of transit, 
it is impracticable to convey it from the depots to the farms 
for use thereon. Whey is consequently largely wasted all over 
the country to the extent of millions of gallons annually, and 
its disposal is, moreover, a source of considerable embarrass- 
ment to many cheese-making depots at the present time. If 
turned into sewers it destroys the efficiency of filter-beds ; if 
allowed to p^ss into streams it causes a state of pollution 
which gives rise to a nuisance ; and if irrigated on land it is 
liable to pollute the neighbouring wells and to kill vegetation. 

(2) Whey contains valuable food materials suitable for 
human consumption, particularly milk sugar (lactose) lactal- 
bumen, butter fat and mineral salts. Collectively they 
amount to about 6 J lb. in every 100 lb. of w'hey. 

(3) In this country, while great quantities of lactose are 
being thrown away in whey, lactose is actually being 
imported from abroad. 

During the year ended 31st March, 1922, satisfactory pro- 
gress was made with the extraction of crude lactose from the 
whey received at the factory, and some 15 tons of this crude 
material were produced. 

The investigations which have been in progress for some 

years into the methods and costs of field drainage have now 

. reached an advanced stage, and it should 

Field Drainage , i . y . 

_ .. .. ° shortly be possible to compile a preliminary 

Investigations. 1 u V^. • ;i t 

° report upon the results obtained. In the 

course of the investigations, tw^o public demonstrations have 
been given, one at Aubourn Fen, near Lincoln, in November 
last year, and one at High Hilden, Tonbridge, in October last. 
By means of these demonstrations the agricultural public have 
been made acquainted with the wide range of devices which 
are available for mole and tile drains, for ditch making and 
cleaning, and for clearing water-ways. The preliminary report 
will deal with the mechanical and economic questions involved 
and will afford guidance as to the best and cheapest methods 
of performing the various operations. The economic aspect 
of the question is, however, one that cannot be speedily ex- 
plored, since the efficiency of a drainage system over a series 
of years is the final test. An outstanding illustration is fur- 



776 



The Agricultural Index Number. 



[Dec, 



nished by the problem whether mole drains of 2J-in. bore at 
•a depth of 18 in. are as efficacious as mole drains of 3J-in. bore 
at a depth of 2 ft. or more : not only are the rate of flow and 
the height of the water table in question, but the duration of 
the smaller, shallower drains as compared with deeper drains 
of approximately twice the cross section. Successful work has 
undoubtedly been accomplished with both systems, but no data 
as to the size of drains, their frequency and depth in given 
types of soil are available. Such data will need to be collected 
before a final report can be made, and the collection of informa- 
tion of this character must necessarily take time. 

****** 

At the present time many claims are made on behalf of sub- 
soiling and special virtues are claimed for special systems. As 
Sub Soilin i^eaders of old agricultural periodicals well 
, ^ . . ^^1^^ know similar claims have been made be- 
Investigations. . • ^ i i • ^ i. 

° fore; an impetus has been given to sub- 

soiling, mistakes have been made, and the movement has died 
down. What is remarkable is that no one has hitherto set 
himself to discover exactly what mechanical results were 
achieved in the soil and what the effect was on the chemistrv 
of the soil and plant life. The first step clearly is to investigate 
various types of sub-soiling appliances and to observe the re- 
sulting crop. The Ministry has made a commencement with 
this investigation and a report upon some mechanical results, 
illustrated by photographs of very considerable interest, will 
appear in an early issue of the Journal. 

****** 

The index numbers of prices of agricultural produce in England 
and Wales show that, on the whole, average prices during October 
The Agricultural ^'ather higher than in September, the 

T J \t ^u^^ increase compared with the corresponding 
Index Number. • ^i ^ni. no v • ^.rr 

month m the years 1911-13 being 57 per 

cent, in September and 59 per cent, in October. The following 
table shows the increase in agricultural prices generally in each 
month since January, 1921, the corresponding month in 1911-13 
being taken as the basis of comparison in each case : — 

Month. Percentage Tncrease.l Month. Percentaqe Increase. 

1921 1922 1921 1922 



January ... ... 183 ... 75 July 

February ... 167 ... 79 ! August .. 

March 150 ... 77 September 

April 149 ... 70 \ October .. 

May ... ... 119 ... 71 November 

June ... ... 112 ... 68 ! December 



112 ... 72 

131 ... 67 

116 ... 57 

86 ... 59 

79 
76 



1922.] The Agrictjltur^vl Index Number. 777 

The index numbers relating to cereals all show slight increases, 
but prices during October were still only 24 to 33 per cent, 
higher than in October, 1911-13. 

Prices of fat cattle, although showing a slightly hardening 
tendency throughout October, were less than 50 per cent, above 
pre-war figures. Sheep and pigs also advanced slightly in value 
during the months but the average prices over the whole month 
show very httle difference from those of the previous month. 

Eggs rose sharply, and as the rise was greater than normally 
occurs between September and October, the index number also 
shows a rise, being now more than 100 per cent, above the pre- 
war figure. It seems fairly certain that egg production is at 
present one of the most remunerative forms of farming, although 
it does not balk largely in the farmers' total receipts. With the 
exception of geese, which showed a slight advance, poultry was 
cheaper in October than in September. Both butter and cheese 
maintained their value, but with the average price in October, 
1911-13, showing a substantial advance, the index number for 
last month shows a decline in each case. 

The following table shows the average increase during recent 
months in the value of the principal commodities sold by the 
farmer : — 

Percentage Increase as compared with the Average Prices ruling in 

THE corresponding MoNTHS OF 1911-13. 





May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Wheat 


62 


60 


53 


53 


23 


24 


Barley 


49 


58 


49 


48 


26 


29 


Oats 


53 


57 


55 


59 


31 


33 


Fat cattle 


70 


71 


70 


70 


58 


49 


Fat sheep 


140 


121 


107 


103 


90 


90 


Fat pifi^s 


91 


82 


91 


92 


84 


85 


Dairy cows ... 


66 


64 


64 


67 


63 


69 


Store cattle ... 


38 


40 


39 


42 


33 


30 


Store sheep ... 


100 


88 


108 


114 


109 


106 


Store pigs 


97 


97 


115 


128 


125 


135 


Eggs 


50 


69 


80 


64 


96 


104 


Poultry 


110 


116 


103 


85 


85 


77 


Milk ! 


27 


28 


53 


70 


70 


90 


Butter 


54 


59 


79 


77 


76 


71 


Cheese 


48 


55 


50 


51 


41 


36 


Potatoes 


140 


80 


75 


14 


1 


3 


Hay 


33 


35 


37 


54 


52 


45 



The principal cause of the rise in the general index number in 
October was the increase in the price of milk, which in September 
was about 70 per cent, above the price in the corresponding 
month before the War, and in October rose to 90 per cent, above. 
As dairy cows are purchasable at about 70 per cent., feeding 
stuffs at less than 50 per cent., and labour at between 80 and 



778 



Corn Sales Act. 11)21. 



[Dec, 



90 per cent, above pre-war prices, the dairy farmers' position 
would appear to be not unsatisfactory. 

The average price of potatoes remained practically unchanged 
in October compared with September, but as the October price 
in 1911-13 was rather lower than that for September, the index 
number shows a sHght rise. Hay fell sUghtly in value, owing 
principally to the marketing of this season's hay crop; the fall, 
however, is less than would at first sight appear from the index 
numbers, as a seasonal advance in prices is usual at this time 
of the year. 

It is evident that in the present agricultural crisis the arable 
farmer is the greatest sufferer, for combined with his reduced 
prices he has had to contend with an expensive harvest and poor 
yields, except in the case of potatoes. Dairying is much more 
attractive, and the bright outlook for trade in sheep and pigs is 
reflected in the demand for, and high relative prices of store 
sheep and swine. Store cattle have been purchasable since the 
spring of this year at 30 to 40 per cent, above pre-war rates, 
and with feeding stuffs also obtainable at relatively low prices, 
even the fattening of cattle would appear to be not unremu- 
nerative. 



As from 1st January next, when the Corn Sales Act of 1921 
comes into force, there should be an end of the varying weights 

Corn Sales Act measures by which corn and agricul- 

1921 ' tural seeds are bought and sold in this 
country. For many years the different 
weights recognised in different districts as equivalent to a 
quarter or bushel of corn and other agricultural produce have 
been a source of much confusion, and the Act provides for 
greater uniformity in the weights and measures used in deal- 
ings in these articles. As will be seen from the definition 
section which is set out below the Act applies not only to corn 
but also to meal, bran, potatoes and agricultural seeds, and after 
the end of the present year any contract, bargain, sale or 
dealing in any of the articles to which the Act applies will be 
null and void unless it is made by weight only and in terms 
of, or by reference to, the hundredweight of 112 lb. This 
means that a contract, bargain, sale or dealing which does not 
conform with the provisions of the Act cannot be enforced in 
a court of law. It therefore behoves everyone trading in these 
articles to see that on and from 1st Januarv next, all his 



192-2.] 



Corn Saie.s Act, 1921. 



779' 



transactions in them are based on a price per hundredweight. 
There are some exceptions to the Act which are set out in full 
below, but so far as home-grown crops are concerned, the main 
exceptions, apart from sales for export, are dealings in growing 
and unthreshed crops. As regards articles produced outside the 
United Kingdom, the x\ct does not apply to dealings in them 
before they have arrived in the United Kingdom, nor does it 
appl}' to imported articles so long as they remain in the ware- 
house, store or shed where they were first stored on importa- 
tion. The Act is also not applicable to cases where the con- 
tract, sale, etc., provides for delivery in the original bags in 
which the articles were imported (subject only to rebagging 
in replacement of damaged bags). So far as the farmer is 
concerned, therefore, these exceptions as regards imported 
produce would seldom apply. 

The relevant sections of the Act are given below in full : — 

Section 1. From and after the commencement of this Act, every 
contract, bargain, sale or deahng rehating to corn shall, unless it is made 
or had by weight only and in terms of and by reference to the hundred- 
weight of one hundred and twelve imperial standard pounds, be null and 
void. 

Provided that this Act shall not apply to any contract, bargain, sale or 
dealing — 

(i) for or relating to a less quantity of corn than one hundred and 

twelve imperial standard pounds ; 

(ii) for or relating to corn which at the date of the contract, bargain, 

sale or dealing is not within the United Kingdom, or to corn 
imported into the United Kingdom so long as the same shall 
remain in the warehouse, or store, or shed where the same shall 
have been first stored on importation ; 

(iii) for or relating to corn imported into the United Kingdom in 
cases where such contract, bargain, sale, or dealing provides for 
delivery in the original bags in which the corn was imported 
(subject only to rebagging in replacement of damaged bags) ; 

(iv) for or relating to corn bought or sold for export from the United 
Kingdom : 

(v) for or relating to corn growing on or in the land or to corn 

unthreshed. 

Section 6. In this Act the expression '• corn " shall, Avhere the context 
permits, include wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize and the meal and bran 
derived therefrom, and any mixture thereof, and this Act shall ap[)ly to 
dried peas, dried beans, linseed and potatoes, and to the seed of grass^ 
clover, vetches, swedes, field turnips, rape, field cabbages, field kale, field 
kohl-rabi, mangels, beet and sugar-beet, flax, and sainfoin in like manner 
as it applies to corn. 

****** 



780 Home-grown Corn and Potatoes for Live Stock. [Dec, 



HOME-GROWN CORN AND POTATOES 

FOR LIVE STOCK. 

T. B. Wood, C.B.E., M.A., F.I.C., F.R.S., 

Drapers' Professor of Agriculture and Fellow of Gonville and 

Cains College, Cambridge. 

Under normal conditions farmers grow their wheat and barley 
for sale to the miller and the maltster, and their potatoes for 
the market. Conditions this year, however, are far from normal, 
and everyone should consider whether it will pay him best to 
sell his corn and potatoes or to use them for feeding live stock. 

This is a point which it is by no means easy to decide, as so 
many things must be taken into consideration. It is necessary 
to know not only the relative food and manurial values and the 
relative prices of similar feeding stuffs, but the price at which 
it is possible to buy suitable animals to be fed, and even perhaps 
in some cases, after two disastrous years, whether it might not 
ease the situation to sell corn and potatoes for ready cash and 
to buy even dearer feeding stuffs on credit. 

It is impossible to deal here w^ith such economic considerations, 
which must be decided by each farmer for himself. It is pos- 
sible, however, to consider the relative feeding value of home- 
grown and purchased feeding stuffs, and to work out prices at 
which, other things being equal, it is cheaper to consume corn 
and potatoes at home than to sell them and to buy other feeding 
stuffs. 

Even this is not quite straightforward, for the comparison 
should be made, not on price per ton, but on price per unit of 
nutritive value after making due allowance for manurial value. 
The best unit of nutritive value to select for this purpose is 
one hundredth of a ton of what is known as starch equivalent 
or net digestible energy. 

Wheat, barley, oats, and potatoes are all somewhat similar in 
composition. All of them are characterised by the high propor- 
tion of starch which they contain. On the farm they could, 
therefore, be used to take the place of other feeding stuffs rich 
in starch, as, for example, middlings and maize. It is with 
these feeding stuffs that they should be compared. 

Feeding Value of Middlings and Maize. — A ton of middlings 
contains 68 units of starch equivalent. The present price per 
ton is round about £S and the manurial value is £1 7s. Deduct- 
ing the manurial value, the net cost of the 68 units of starch 



1922.] Home-grown Corn and Potatoes for Live Stock. 



781 



equivaleDt is £6 13s. The cost per unit of starch equivalent is 
therefore £6 13s. divided by 68, or almost exactly 2s. per unit. 

The average price of maize at present is round about £2 per 
quarter, which is equivalent to £9 6s. 8d. per ton. Maize con- 
tains 81 units of starch equivalent per ton and its manurial 
value is 17s. per ton. The net cost of the 81 units of starch 
equivalent is therefore £S 9s. 8d. The cost per unit of starch 
equivalent is therefore £'8 9s. 8d. divided by 81, or almost 
exactlv 2s. 

Starch equivalent costs 2s. per unit in both middlings and 
maize, the two starchy foods most largely used. 

Feeding Value of Home-Grown Corn. — Average samples of 
sound wheat contain 72 units of starch equivalent per ton. At 
the present price of starch equivalent in maize and middlings, 
namely, 2s. per unit, the 72 units in 1 ton of w^heat are worth 
£7 4s. Adding the manurial value oi £1 per ton, wheat for 
home consumption should be worth £8 4s. per ton, or 37s. per 
quarter of 504 lb. This means that any farmer who awns suitable 
live stock to consume wheat, and is not in urgent need of ready 
cash, would be well advised to grind or crush his wheat for home 
consumption rather than to buy maize or middlings unless he 
could sell his wheat for considerably more than 37s. per quarter 
so as to pay for the delivery of the wheat and the carriage of 
other feeding stuffs bought in its place. 

The following table gives t lie pi'ice below which it is more 
economical to keep com and potatoes for home consumption 
rather than to sell them and buy maize or middlings at current 
prices : — 

Wheat ... 37/- per quarter of 504 lb. > plus in each case an addition sufli- 
Rye ... 37/- ,. ,, 504 lb. / cient to pay for the cost of 

Barley ... 32/- .. .. 448 lb. , delivering the articles sold and 

Oats ... 21/- .. .. 33(1 lb. \ fetching home the feeding stuffs 

Potatoes ... 40/- per ton ... ... ' bought in their jilace. 

Having arrived at the prices which determine the relative 
economy of sale or home consumption, the next point is to dis- 
cuss the use of the various article? in case it is decided to feed 
them at home. 

Wheat. — It is commonly accepted that wheat is not a safe food 
for horses, and its use is not recommended for sheep. It can, 
however, be used successfully for pigs and for dairy cows. 

For young pigs it may be used up to about one-quarter of their 
total ration, and it may be given either roughlv ground together 
with the rest of the ration in the dry state, or more finely ground 
and made into slop. 



782 



Home-c;roavn Corn and Potatoes for Live Stock. [Dec, 



For fattening hogs wheat may be used up to one-third of their 
total ration, and in this ease it should be fairly finely ground 
together with the rest of the ration and made into slop. 

For milch cows, ground wheat may form as much as one 
quarter of their total ration of concentrated food. Thus, sup- 
posing the ration consists of roots or silage, hay or straw, and 
8 lb. of concentrated foods, the concentrated foods may consist 
of 6 lb. of cake and 2 lb. of sfround wheat. In this case 
the ground w^heat is usually mixed with the chaff and pulped 
roots and allowed to stand some time before feeding. This 
method of feeding prevents the wheat becoming pasty in the 
mouth. 

Rye on the whole is not of good repute as a feeding stuff in 
this country. It can, however, be used successfully for pigs in 
the same way as wheat, provided the ration contains a little fish- 
meal or dried blood to supply constituents in which the rye is 
deficient. Skim milk or whey would also provide these absent 
constituents, or they could be supplied in the form of fresh roots 
or green-stuff. 

Barley is much better known as a feeding stuff for live stock 
than either wheat or rye ; in fact, the annual consumption of 
barley by live stock in the United Kingdom is not far short of 
a million tons. It can be used safely and economically for 
almost all kinds of stock except suckling sows and ewes and milch 
•cows. The general opinion of practical stock keepers is that the 
use of barley for milking animals of any kind very soon produces 
a fall in the milk flow. 

In the Eastern Counties, where the climate is too hot lor the 
oat crop, barley is the standard horse corn. If used for horses 
it should be remembered that about 6 lb. of barley contain as 
much nutritive value as 7 lb. of oats, :and in replacing part of the 
oats in a ration by barley, the replacement should be in these 
proportions, that is to say, 14 oz. of barley for 1 lb. of oats. 

For fattening sheep barley is an excellent food, but when the 
sheep are on roots, which are poor in protein, the barley should 
be mixed with some other concentrated feeding stuff rich in that 
<M3nstituent. A series of trials carried out years ago by the Nor- 
folk Chamber of Agriculture showed that by far the best addition 
to barley is decorticated cotton cake. For three years in succes- 
sion a mixture of equal weights of crushed barley and decorti- 
cated cotton cake produced more mutton at less cost than any 
-other mixture included in the trial. 



192-2.] 



The Fahmek and Home-grown Foods. 



783 



Barley is also an excellent feeding stuff for pigs, except 
suckling sows. For fattening hogs it is ground with maize and 
fed as slop with the addition of -i small proportion of bean meal 
or ground linseed cake or some other feeding stuff rich in 
protein. A suitable mixture would be equal weights of barley 
and maize with about one-twentieth to one-tenth of their weight 
of bean meal or linseed cake. 

For younger animals the barley may be crushed and fed dry, 
and may form nearly the whole of the ration provided the 
animals have access to roots or greenstuff. 

Oats are so well known as a feeding stuff as haadly to need 
any description of their uses. It may, however, be worth remark 
that oats are much more valuable for working or milking animals 
or for stores than for fattening. In case it is found desirable 
to use oats for pigs, the following method may be found valu- 
able : grind the oats and mix to ra thin slop with water ; stir well 
and pour through a coarse sack. The finer, more floury, por- 
tions of the grain will run through and the thin slop thus 
obtained, thickened somewhat with maize meal or barley meal 
or middlings, may be fed to young pigs or to fattening hogs. 
The husky portions left in the sack may be used for sows. 

Potatoes are a wholesome food for any class of live stock, 
provided they do not form an excessive proportion of the ration. 
They can be used either raw or cooked, but only small quantities 
should be given in the raw state. The common method of using 
lip potatoes which for any reason it is not possible to sell or to 
use for human consumption, is to cook them for pigs. In this 
form they can be used to replace part of the meal ration at the 
rate of 4 ]b. of potatoes to 1 lb. of meal. 

****** 

WHEN SHOULD THE FARMER 
SELL HOME-GROWN FOODS? 

Arthur G. Ruston, B.A., B.Sc. (Lond.), D.Sc. (Leeds), 
and J. S. Simpson, B.Sc, 
Department of Agriculture, The Universitij, Leeds. 

In the course of the Farm Costings investigations carried on 
by the University of Leeds it has been observed that there is a 
growing tendency this year for the farmer to feed his grain to 
■stock, rather than to sell it and purchase cakes and meals. 
Inquii-ies ije also continually being made as to whether at pre- 



784 



The Farmer and Home-grown Foods. 



[Dec, 




Price per Unit Starch Eqv.irule.ut. 
Fig. 1. — Purchased Foods (Carbohydrates). 




Price per Unit Starch, Equiralent, 
Fig, 2. —Home-grown Foods (Carbohydrates. 



J 922.] 



The Farmer and Home-grown Foods. 



785 



sent prices home-grown grain is a cheaper food than the usual 
purchased concentrates and as to what price these home-pro- 
duced foods must reach before it will pay the producer to sell. 
A definite answer covering the whole range of purchased foods 
cannot be given straight aw^ay, owing to the large variation in 
their relative prices at any particular time. The possession 
of alternative markets is one of the economic advantages of the 
farming industry, and a study of the question " To Feed or 
Sell? " has brought out some interesting facts, which are here 
presented in the hope that they will prove of use to farmers all 
over the country. 

Classification of Foods. — From the chemical point of viev7, 

wheal, oats and barley are carbohydrate foods, and can be used 
to substitute similar types of food normally purchased. No 
matter which type of carbohydrates is fed — either home-gTown or 
purchased — protein also must be supplied to ensure the greatest 
possible utilisation of the food. The following list, abstracted 
from the feeding records of some 50 farms, includes those carbo- 
hydrate foods normally purchased : Maize germ meal, maize 
meal, middlings, dried grains, bran. Which, if any, of these 
can be replaced by liome-growii grains, so as to reduce the cost 
oi a ration? 

Basis of Valuation. — As foods — even those in the same class, 
•e.g., carbohydrates — possess different values to the animal, and 
as they also possess different manarial values, price per ton 
cannot be taken as a basis of comparison. It is, however, 
perfectly fair to compare foods of the same class on their price 
per unit starch equivalent, to determine which is a simple matter. 

Methods of Calculation. — If from the price per ton the 
manurial value of the food in question be deducted the result is 
the feeding value per ton. When this is divided by the starch 
equivalent of the food — a figure originally proposed by Kellner 
and now^ incorporated in most standard tables of the composition 
of foods — the result is the price per unit starch equivalent. This 
iH shown in the following example : — 



Sharj>>i. 

Price per ton 

Less Manurial Value 



(^Starch Equicalent 



f)3 per 100 Ih.) 
£9 10 
1 14 



Feeding Value 



£7 16 



Divide feeding value by Starch Equivalent (63) 
Price per Unit Starch Equivalent... 2s. 6d. 



786 The Farmer ais'd Home-grow x Foods. [Dec 




Price per Unit Starch Equivalent. 
Fig. 4. — Home-grown Foods (rruteins). 



1922.] 



The Farmer and Home-grown Foods. 



787 



l^impi^ though this calculation be. it is realised that not all 
farmers possess the necessary tables — or the time, to work out 
the unit cost for all the foods they may be offered. To eliminate 
the arithmetic, the accompanying diagrams have been devised. 

To avoid confusion in using the diagrams onlv five foods are 
shown in Figs. 1 and 3. Similar curves could, of course, be 
constructed for any food in which a farmer is particularly 
interested, the necessary data being obtained from suitable 
tables.* 

Method of Using the Diagrams. — The diagrams show at a 
glance the price per unit starch equivalent corresponding to any 
price per ton of a foodstuff., or per quarter of grain. To take a 
concrete case, a farmer has some barlev and considers whether 
to feed it, or to sell it and buy maize meal for his cows. He is 
offered 35s. per quarter for his barley and can buy maize meal 
at ^11 per ton. Selling his barley involves carting to a station 
or mill or elsewhere, so the grain really stands him at less 
than 35s. on the farm, while against this has to be put the cost 
of pjrindinpj should he feed it. On the other hand, railway 
carriage and carting would increase the cost of the maize meal, 
and £11 10s. could be fairly taken as its cost on the farm. 

Taking Fig. 1 he looks up the vertical line, until he sees the 
position corresponding to £11 10s. He then runs his pencil 
liorizontallv across to the line marked Maize Meal." and from 
the point of intersection draws his pencil vertically downwards 
to the horizontal line. The point at which this horizontal line 
is touched represents the price per unit starch equivalent of the 
maize meal. 

He now turns to Fig. 2 and reverses the process. On the 
horizontal line he finds the point representing the same price 
per unit starch equivalent as the maize meal would cost. 
He then moves his pencil vertically until it meets the line 
marked *' Barley," and from there moves horizontally and to 
the left until until his pencil crosses the vertical line representing 
" Price per Quarter." If the price offered is less than that indi- 
cated by the diagram, it will pay the farmer to feed his barley, 
but if, on the other hand, the price offered is higher, then he 
should by all means sell and buy maize meal for his cows. 

* 0) Pamphlet No. 73, published by the University of Leeds, which can 
be obtained free on application to The Department of Aiiricultiire, Tni 
vprsitv, Leeds, 

f;^) Miscellaneous Publication No. 32, published b}- the Ministry, price 6d. 

(3) The table on p. 841 of this Journal. 

(4) The Agricultural Market Report, issued weekly by the Ministry, 
price 2(1. 

B 2 



788 



FiXHIBITS AT THE IMPERIAL FrUIT ShOW. 



[Dec, 



To make this example clearer, tlie lines which the farmer 
draws, have been dotted in. They show that maize meal at 
£11 10s. per ton is costing 2s. 8d. pei- unit starch equivalent, and 
that valued on this figure barley is worth as a food £2 2s. per 
quarter. As. then, the farmer is offered only 35s. per quarter 
for his barley, it will pay him to feed it, and to continue feeding 
it until the piiee offered rises above 42s. per quarter. 

It will be found that with a little practice the drawing of lines 
can be dispensed with, and the whole process will be quickly 
completed — in much less time than this description takes to read. 
The diagrams, of course, will lidld for any year and any number 
of examples can be worked from them. 

Protein Foods. — Not all farmers grow protein-containing foods 
in their usual rotations but those who have either peas or beans 
on hand should consider whether to feed or to sell and buv such 
protein foods ns cotton cake and meal, maize gluten feed, palm 
kernel or sova bean cake. Figs. B and 4 can be used to determine 
this point, the same method being employed as when comparing 
the purchased and home-grown foods of a carbohydrate nature 
in Figs. T and 2. 

****** 

THE COMPETITIVE EXHIBITS AT THE 
SECOND IMPERIAL FRUIT SHOW. 

H. Y. Taylor, A.K.C.Sc. B.Sc, 

DepKltj-CoiiiroUcr of Jlorti culture, Ministrif of Agriculture 

and Fisheries. 

There w^ei-e many at the close of the 1921 Fruit Show who, 
whilst recognising the advantage gained to the industry by the 
show, recommended that a lapse of five years should be given 
before holding a second. They admitted the success of the ven- 
ture but thought that many had given support because of the 
novelty of the venture, which support, they feared, would not 
be forthcoming for a second show if held without an interval. 
Certainly the holding of a second show under much the same 
conditions and at the same place (Crystal Palace) w.-as a bold ven- 
ture ; but that it was justified is shown by the number of entries 
received for competition at the show, which were as follows :-— 

Apples 1,081 entriess. 

Pears 107 

Oranges 15 

Cxrapes ... ... ... ... ••• 15 

Tomatoes ... ... ... ... ... 62 

Potatoes 486 

Total 1,766 



1922.] Exhibits at the Imperiaj. Frxit Show. 789 



The display of such a large mass of fruit and potatoes was 
ruiturallv an attractive sif^ht to the manv visitors who came to 
the Palace, and should have some effect in encouraging ar 
increased consumption of fruit by townsfolk. The growers 
from all parts of England visited the show for another purpose, 
namely, to see the exhibits in the hope of learning better methods 
of selecting and packing the fruit for the markets. In this 
they were not disappointed, for there was much to be learnt by 
a close study of the methods adopted in selecting the fruit and 
the methods of packing adopted in the competitive exhibits ; 
useful knowledge on market packages and methods of packing 
was provided at many of the trade exhibitors' stalls, whilst on 
the stands of the Ministry the scientific exhibits staged by the 
Long Ashton, East Mailing. Rothamsted. Cambridge and Leeds 
Universit}'' Research Stations, together with the models of pests 
from the Ministry's Pathological Laboratory, afforded a unique 
opportunity for all to acquire a knowledge of recent research. 

The names of the apples were generally attached to each 
exhibit, so providing information for the less experienced. The 
eJudges' Score Cards were also placed on view, not only that e.ach 
exhibitor could see the marks awarded to his own exhibit but 
that all who so desired could study the good and weak points of 
every exhibit. The writer does not intend to give a general 
account of the show, for this the technical trade Press has pro- 
vided, but it may serve a useful purpose to give a few notes on 
(he winning exhibits in the premier classes, commencing with 
the all-important section where British and Canadian fruits were 
in competition. 

Apples* — British Empire Section. — The principal classes in 
this section were for dessert and culinaiy apples, and each com- 
petitor's exhibit comprised no fewer than 20 boxes. In years 
favourable to the production of good samples of fruit the selection 
bv a grower of some 4,000 dessert apples or 2,000 cookers, 
uniform in size, colour and shape, sufficient to fill 20 boxes, is 
by no means an easy task. This year when British fruit 
generally was small and of poor colour the task was a hard one, 
and it would generally be agreed that the British exhibits in this 
section fell below the hi.cjh standard achieved in the Kent and 
Southern Counties and the West Midland Sections, where an 
exhibit comprised 6 boxes. The Canadian exhibits, though 
perhaps, not so well packed as in 1921, contained good condi- 
tioned fnu't with plenty of colour and bloom and of uniform size 
and colour. 



790 



Exhibits at the Imperial Fruit Show. 



In the dessert class the Canadian Cox's Orange Pippin, the 
Macintosh Eed. and Snows competed against the British Cox's 
Orange J^ipjjin, Worcester Pearmain and AlHngton Pippin. The 
first prize was awarded to a good sample of Cox's from Nova 
Scotia. These apples, which were of medium size and packed 
3 X 2 on end, bore a light crimson blush with broken streaks on 
a bright orange yellow skin, though showing little russet. The 
flavour, for which it scored full marks, was one of the best. 
Nova Scotia certainly seems able to produce apples of the best 
colour and with full flavour. 

The second prize went to a fine dessert sample of Snows with 
clear skin lightly coloured red. Two English samples of Cox's 
Orange Pippin came next : with the exhibit from Malvern 
winning by one mark after appeal to the umpire. These exhibits 
were both excellent, but lacked the colour and brightness of the 
Nova Scotia apples. 

Many other exhibits in this section were excellent, though 
some were on the small size. Two fine exhibits — Worcesters 
from Reading and Cox's Orange Pippin from Kent — were dis- 
qualified because the exhibitors did not comply with the rules. 

For culinari/ apples the Canadians relied mainly on Kings, 
Greenings and Spy, and the English on Newton Wonders, of 
which many fine apples were shown, I^ane's Prince Albert, and 
Braraleys. Exhibits of Bismarck and Gascoygne's Scarlet w^ere 
included. Some bright red Nova Scotia Kings looked attractive 
and won the first prize. These were very evenly sized and uni- 
formly coloured, but lacked quality. The exhibit of Bismarck 
from Chelmsford secured the second award, wdth Newton Wonder 
— rather on the small size — from Canterbury, third. 

There were some very good Bramley's Seedling apples, but 
this variety does not show to advantage in boxes. Newton Won- 
der and Lane's Prince Albert on the other hand, looked well in 
boxes — the bright scarlet flush of the former and the red stripes 
of the latter showing to advantage. There was one specially fine 
exhibit of Lane's, which was disquolified by the Judges as the 
pack did not conform to the rules, being " off-set." 

All the winning apples were packed 2x2 which may serve as 
an indication as to the size for future selection of cooking apples. 

Pears. — In the Channel Islands and the Great Britain sections 
there were many different varieties of pears, of which 
Doyenne du Comice, Conference, Durondeau, Calebash, 
Louise Bonne, Marie Louise, EmJle D'Hevst, Pitmaston 



1922.] Exhibits at the Imperial Fruit Show. 791 



Duchess and Catillac were the more prominent. In 
some exhibits the pears were packed either in cotton 
or wood wool ; in others they were wrapped in paper and 
packed in boxes in a manner similar to that adopted for apples. 
Where care in packing had been given both methods proved 
satisfactory, though generally the packing of pears was at fault 
and contrasts of the packing provided an excellent object lesson 
to those willing to learn b}^ observation. 

The Conference section was strongly contested, but the stan- 
dard was low as would be expected for Conference at this late 
date. 

In the Great Britain section there was one exhibit from Sussex 
of exceptionally large, fine quality Doyenne dn Comice, which 
lost the first prize solely through bad packing. The first prize 
was awarded to an exhibit from Kent of much smaller pears, of 
even size and colour and excellently packed. Gener:ally this class 
was but slightly contested. The standard of fruit was high, but 
the packing poor. Much of the fruit rapidly deteriorated owing 
to bruising due to faulty packing, and prices by auction ruled 
low. The Dovenne du Comice in the Channel Islands section 
were on the whole better than in the Great Britain section. The 
fruits were larger, in better condition, and the best exhibits were 
carefully packed, the fruit being separated with protective paper. 
In many of the exhibits in this section the fruits were tumbled 
together instead of being nicely separated and kept in position 
by paper partitions. The Channel Islands fruit kept well and 
the well packed fruit realised quite pood prices at the sale. 

Pitmaston Duchess figured largely in the " any other dessert 
variety " class in both the Great Britain and the Channel Islands 
sections, and some excellent, large bright specimens were shown. 
The exhibits of Calebash and Durondeau were rough, the Louise 
Bonne small, attractive and nicely packed. 

In the class for cooking pears, Catillac was shown in every 
instance except one, and this won the first prize. The second 
prize was awarded to an excellent and nicely coloured sample of 
Catillac from Faversham. The other samples of Catillac lacked 
uniformity and it was evident quality had been sacrificed to large 
size. 

Grapes. — There were classes for grapes in the British Empire 
section, the Great Britain section and the Channel Islands 
section, but only in the last were there any material entries. 
Generally Muscat of Alexandria was shown in the classes for 
white grapes and Colmar as blacks. All exhibits were good, the 



792 



Electro-Culture . 



[Dec, 



bunches were of large size and contained good even sized berries 
in excellent condition and full of bloom. 

The bunches of grapes were tied to shallow baskets which were 
Ijjied with white paper, wood, or cotton wool, depending on the 
method adopted. The grapes in every single instance when 
packed in this wav had travelled well, retaining most of the 
natural bloom and freshness, and were generally admired by 
the public. 

It was difificiiJt to decide as to the best exhibit in the show; 
some of the public preferred the waving exhibit of Colmar 
shown by Mr. Tostevin, Guernsey, in the Channel Islands sec- 
tion; while others thought the Colmars of Messrs. Douglas 
Brothers, of Worthing, which, secured the first prize in the 
Great Britain section, superior. Both were good and at the 
auction sale each realised 12s. per basket. 

The Dominion of Canada has cause to be proud of its successes 
attained at the present show, and the State of Nova Scotia by 
securing the two first prizes has abundantl}^ demonstrated the 
capabilities of that State for producing apples of the highest 
class. In the Section confined to Overseas eleven of the possible 
fourteen first prizes were secured b}^ Ontario, which must rank 
as a great performance. Channel Island exhibitors were show- 
ing for the first time and they have every reason to be satisfied 
with the produce shown and the success achieved. 

Mfr ^ Ml^ ¥^ ^ 

ELECTRO-CULTURE. 

Although investigations into the influence of electrical dis- 
charge on plant growth are still in the preliminary stages and 
the economic possibilities of ' ' electro-culture ' ' are still uncer- 
tain, so much interest has been manifested in the subject that 
it is desirable to give a brief account of the work so far accom- 
plished under the direction of the Electro-Culture Committee.* 

* The Committee was appointed in 1918, to "advise the Ministiy of 
Agriculture and Fisheries in regard to all electrical questions in connection 
with the carrying out of experiments in electro-culture, and particularly 
in regard to the construction of apparatus suitable for use on an economic 
scale, and to the making of such electrical measurements as may be necessary 
in connection with the experiments." The present constitution of the Com- 
mittee is as follows : — Sir John Snell, M.Inst.C.E, (Chairman) ; Mr. A. F. Berry ; 
Professor V. H. Blackman, F.R.S. ; Mr. A. B. Bruce. M. A. ; Dr. C. Chree, F.R.S. ; 
Mr. W. R.Cooper, M.A., B.Sc, A.I.C.; Dr. W. H. Eccles, F.R.S., M.I.E.E. ; 
Mr. P. Hedworth Foulkes, B.Sc. ; Mr. J. S. Highfield. M.I.E.E.; Professor 
G. W.O. Howe; Professor T. Mather, F.R.S., M.I.E.E.; Mr. B.J. Owen,M.Sc., 
M.Eng. ; Mr. H. G. Richardson. M.A., B.Sc. ; Sir John Russell, F.R.S. ; and 
Mr. C. T. R. Wilson. F.R.S. 



1922.] 



Electro-Culture . 



79a 



The scientific aspect of the work will be more fully dealt with 
iu two papers which Prof. V. H. Blackman is contributing to 
the "Journal of Agricultural Science." The Committee has 
now been at work for five years and has issued four interim 
reports* : the work completed in 1922 which was undertaken 
on lines suggested by the experience of previous years 
p]-omises very striking results, but an account of that vrork 
must await the fifth interim report of the Committee which 
has not yet been presented. 

In view of the complexity of the subject the Committee have 
confined their experiments to electro-culture by means of over- 
head discharge. Field experiments have been carried out for 
the Committee by Professor Y. H. Blackman at Rothamsted 
with barley (1918 and 1920), winter sown wheat (1919 and 
1920), winter oats (1921) and clover hay (1919, 1920 and 1921); 
at Lincluden ^Dumfries) with oats (1918, 1919 and 1920), and 
potatoes (1921); and at Harper Adams Agricultural College with 
oats (1919, 1920 and 1921), clover hay (1920) and pea and oat 
mixtures (1921). Pot-culture experiments have been carried out 
by Professor Blackman at Rothamsted in 1918, 1919, 1920 and 
1921, with wheat, maize and barley; laboratory experiments to 
determine the eft'ect of electric currents on the growth of plant 
organs have also been undertaken. 

Field Trials. — Apparatus. — The apparatus at Lincluden con- 
sisted of a mercury interrupter, supplied with a direct current at 
a voltage of 60, an induction coil and three Lodge valves in 
series. At Rothamsted it consisted of a petrol-driven " Delco " 
set, with at first a dry transformer and later an oil-cooled trans- 
former, and a Newton .and Wright disc-rectifier. At the 
Harper Adams Agricultural College current (100 volts D.C.) 
v;as available from the small electric lighting installation of 
the College. The apparatus consisted of a 2-h.p. motor coupled 
to a one K.V.A. A.C. generator (140 volts) which bore on an 
extension of its spindle a Newton and Wright disc-rectifier. 
An oil -cooled transformer (l-K-V-A.^* giving a voltage up to 
60,000 was employed for the discharge current. 

Field InfttaUation. — A steel cable supported on high tension 
insulators was fixed at a height of about 7 ft. at each side of 
the electrified areas and fine galvanised steel w^ires (gauge 29) 
spanned the distance between the cables. The wires were 
5 or 10 ft. apart. The aerial installation was made positive. 

* To be obtiiinod free 011 application to the Secretary to the Committee, 
¥Jr. W. l\. Black. B.Sc. Ministry of Agriculture. 10. Whitehall Place, S.W. 1. 



794 



Electro-Culture . 



At Harper Adams Agricultural College a screen of wire-net- 
ting, 8 ft. high was fixed between the electrified area and the 
control area during one season's experiments. 

Current. — The currents varied at the different stations with 
different crops, and in the different years. Those in 1921 were 
as follows: — At Lincluden, the discharge was given at the 
rate of about 0.5 milliamp. per acre; the voltage (crest value) 
was about 25,000. At Rothamsted two installations were sup- 
plied from the same transformer, so that the current could 
be controlled in one only, that over winter oats being selected. 
With this crop the voltage (crest value) varied between 25,000 
and 55,000 and the total discharge current was maintained at 
the rate of 0.5 milliamp. per acre. The discharge given to 
the clover grass varied from 0.2 milliamp. to 0.6 milliamp. 
per acre. At Harper Adams Agricultural College also two 
installations were supplied from the same transformer. With 
oats the voltage (crest value) varied from 25,000 to 56,000, and 
the current was kept at about 1.0 milliamp. With the pea 
and oat mixture the current varied between 0.25 and 1.25 
milliamp. per acre. 

Period of Discharge. — The periods during which crops were 
subjected to the overhead discharge varied from 500 to about 
900 hours. As a rule the period lasted from April to August 
and the discharge was continued for 6 or 8 hours daily. 

Results of Field Experiments. — The results from different 
crops in different years and at different stations are fully dis- 
cussed in the four Interim Reports which should be consulted 
for details. The accompanying table, however, gives a general 
summarv of results of field exneriments from 1915 onw^ards 
(those from 1918 being under the auspices of the Committee). 
This summary does not include results obtained in 1921, the 
dry weather of that year being unfavourable for field 
experimental work. 

The data taken as a whole show that of the fourteen positive 
results of experiments extending over six years only three are 
less than 10 per cent., while of the four negative results none 
reaches 10 per cent. Of the ten positive results with spring- 
sown cereals only two are less than 10 per cent., and six 
show an increase of 30 per cent, or over: while of the two 
negative results both show decreases of less than 10 per cent. 
The results of field experiments with these spring crops show 
an average increase of 22 per cent. The effect of electrification 
in increasing the yield of spring-sown oats and barley has thus 



ELECTKO-CuLTrRE . 



been demonstrated. A beneficial effect on clover-hay is prob- 
able, while that on winter-sown wheat is still uncertain. 

Spring Sown Cereals. 

Difference in Yield per 
acre nf Electrified Crops 
compared u-itk Control 
Crops. 











'1 /•/ 7/ // / 


fip] nfirp 










Bush. 


per cent. 


Lincluden 




1915 


... Oats 


+ 4-8 


+ 30 


:i 




1916 


5) •■• 


+ 11-2 


+ i9 


)•/ 




1917 


11 •" ••' 


+ 0-7 


+ 2 


11 
',1 




1918 
1919 


•1 

... ., ... ... 


+ 26-7 
+ 12-8 


+ 50 
+ 35 


M 




1920 


... 


— 2() 


— <> 


>* 




1920 


... ... ... 


4- 18-S 


+ 57 


Rothamsted 




1917 


... Barley 

(SmalJ plots) 


( + 2-.0)* 


... (+35) 


>• 


... 


1918 




+ 4-4 


+ 10 






1920 




+ 51 


+ 19 


Harper Adam;- 


College... 


1919 


... Oats 


+ 1-0 


+ ^ 




11 


1920 




— 4-3 


— 9 








Meaji 


+ 7-1 


+ 22 






Winter Sown Wheat. 














Bush. 


per cent. 


Rotharasted 




1919 
1920 


Clover-Hay. 


+ 6-0 
— 07 

Cwt. 


+ 38 
— 4 

per cent. 


Rothamsted 




1919 


(1st Crop) 


+ 11-7 


+ 50 






1919 


(2nd Crop) 


4- 4-3 


+ 34 






1920 




4- 0-5 


+ 2 


Harper Adam? 


5 Colle.ire... 


1 920 




— 3-0 










Mean 


+ 3-4 


+ 20 



Pot Culture Experiments. — The object of these experiments 
carried out at the Eothamsted Experimental Station has been 
to obtain various data as to the current to be used in electro- 
culture work on the early vegetative growth of cereals. The 
subjects investigated have been strength of current, the rela- 
tive effects of direct and alternating current, and of upward 
and downward current and the period of the life of the grow^- 

* One result, that of the Rothamsted experiment of 1919 with wheat, has been 
excluded, tor owing to special conditions the crop was a partial failure, j'ieiding 
only 8 bushels to the acre. The decrease in jield of the electrified area as compared 
with the Control was 7 per cent. 

Also in calculating the differences in yield between the two areas, that of iIk' 
Rothamsted barley plots of 1917 has not been included in determining the average, 
for the crop was harvested some time before maturity. 



796 Electeo-Culture. . [Dec, 

iijg crop when the discharge is most effective. Wire networks 
charged to a high voltage (4,000-16,000 crest value) were sus- 
pended at various heights above the plants; the current passing 
through plants was led off from the bottom of the insulated 
pots to a micro-ammeter reading to 0.01 microamp. The networks 
were made positive, except for one set of experiments in 1921. 
The control pots were " earthed " in all cases. 

In 1918 and 1919 the high tension discharge was obtained 
by the use of a mercury interrupter and an induction coil, 
Lodge valves being employed for rectification. In the experi- 
ments of 1920 and 1921 the installation consisted of a small 
rotary converter giving 70 volts A.C., and a wax-impregnated 
transformer made by Messrs. Newton and Wright. The over- 
head networks, when alternating current was used, were con- 
nected directly to the transformer; when direct current was 
required rectification was obtained by means of Lodge valves. 
The plants themselves were able to bring about some slight 
rectification. 

The discharge in these pot experiments was usually given 
for about six hours each da}'. There were two experiments 
with wheat, nine with maize, and nine with barley. 

In 1918 it was found that (under the conditions of the 
experiments) currents passing through the plants of the order 
10 X 10 — 9 amp. were injurious in the case of the early 
vegetative stages of maize. Currents as low as 0.3 x 10 — 9 
amps, appear to have an accelerating action on growth. The 
experiments of 1920 suggested that alternating current is as 
effective as direct current, if not more effective; the results 
obtained that year with direct current were, however, less 
satisfactory than in previous years. 

The experiments of 1921 confirmed the results of 1920 that 
alternating current is usually as effective as, or more effective 
than, direct current. They further suggested that an upward 
current through the plant can increase growth in the same 
way as a downward current: and. lastly, they suggest that 
a discharge apj^lied for the first month only of the growing 
season may be at least as effective as one continued throughout 
the growing season— -'a result, if confi.rmed, of great importance 
since it shows that the rnnnin<: costs of crop electrification can 
b(^ markerlly reduced. 

* * * * * « 



1922.] Moorland Grazing in the North of England. 797 



IMPROVEMENT OF MOORLAND 
GRAZING IN THE NORTH 
OF ENGLAND.- 

D. A. Gilchrist, 
Professor of Agriculture, Armstrong College, 
N e2rcastle-upon-T ij ne . 

The total urea of land in Xuitliuniberland is over 1^ milliuii 
acres. Of this about 700,000 acres are under crops and grass, 
and there are about 500,000 acres of moorland pasture and 
rough mountain land in the county. The object of this article 
is to deal with the portions of the latter that are capable of 
economic improvement. Experiments on the improvement of 
moorland have been conducted for some years on several moor- 
land farms, in the upper North Tyne, including Kielder (Mr. 
Thornton), Newton (Mr. John Eobson), and at other centres. 
The results have been most suggestive, and indicate possible 
lines of improvement. 

Trials near Beilingham, 1920. — In the autumn of 1919, 
Mr. Arthur 11. Eidley, Park End, VVark-on-Tyne, offered to 
have an area of about 14^} acres of moorland at Highfield farm, 
about 5 miles north of Tarset Station, fenced off and treated 
with a suitable manure. This area is at about 800 ft. altitude. 
Part of it w:as under cultivation many years ago, while the 
remainder is virgin moorland and is typical of very large areas 
of such. It includes some dry moorland with a little heather 
and also land on which are growing rough grass and moorland 
plants. 

Basic slag (38 per cent, phosphates^ was applied at the rate of 
10 cwt. per acre on most of this area in the early spring of 1920. 
A portion of the enclosure was left untreated, and to the north 
a portion of the unenclosed moor was treated with basic slag at 
the same rate per acre. Mr. Eidley has met the greater part of 
the cost (over .£100) of this trial. The carting of the material 
and the application of the slag were done by the tenant. 

When inspected in August, 1922, it was found that the part 
to the south-east, which was in cultivation many years ago, is 
not yet responding well to basic slag. The tops of the ridges 
have no clover plants, very wiry grass, and a good deal of dead 
organic matter on the surface, underneath which the soil is very 
drv. In the furrows, where there is more moisture, wild white 
clover is developing well and is slowly extending towards the 



* See this Journal, January. 1921, p. 928. 



798 



Moorland Grazing in the North of England. [Dec, 



ci'owns of the ridges. It is probable that a good effect would be 
produced by cuts with a disc harrow or by other means, made 
on the crowns and in the direction of the ridges, so as to allow 
rain water to penetrate to the soil. Grazing with cattle is being 
done and will help this tendenc}^ The best clover develop- 
ment is on virgin moorland on the northern part of the enclosure, 
where the soil is near the surface and there is not much matty 
covering. Between the rushes in these parts clover plants are 
• developing well, and this is also taking place immediately to the 
north on the unenclosed moor. Cattle are eating the herbage 
much better in the enclosed area than sheep are doing on the 
moor outside. On the west of the area the moorland is dry and 
harsh and here there is little result. Tt is evident, therefore, 
that this latter is not the kind of moorland on which improve- 
ment should be attempted. 

The important lesson already derived is that there are only 
limited areas of moorland which can be profitabty improved by 
basic slag or other phosphatic manures, and that the areas that 
can be so improved are those on which small clover plants can 
be found and where the soil is fairly near the surface. Soil of 
a loamy or heavier character is likely to respond to phosphatic 
manuring, but sandy moorland will probably not do so to any- 
thing like the same extent. Evidently a damp condition of the 
moor is a distinct advantage, provided the land is not water- 
logged v/ith stagnant (marshy) water. Where' there is much 
dead organic matter on the surface the phosphatic manures 
cannot reach the soil underneath for many years, and there is 
little hone of improvement for a long time. Clover plants are 
i-cni'iliv nbsent on such areas. 

Trials near Haltwhistle, 1920,— Alderman Sample has made 
similar trials at Whiteside, 4 miles north of Haltwhistle, at an 
altitude of about 700 ft. High gnide basic slag (10 cwt. per acre) 
and mineral phosphates in equivalent quantities, applied in the 
winter of 1920-21. are already showing good results on moorland 
where the conditions are favourable, as at Highfield, but there 
is practically no response to these manures where the herbage 
is harsh and coarse in character, with no clover plants and, a 
thick mat of organic matter. 

The results were of the same character on Tipalt moor, adjoin- 
ing Whiteside (Mr. Edward Joicey, Blenkinsop Hall. Halt- 
whistle) ; on the Paise farm, 4^,- miles from Hexham (the late 
Mr. E. 0. Blayney), and at Westbnrnhope farm, 9 miles south 
of Hexhnm (Mr. Edward Bobson). 



1922.] i\IooELAND Grazing in the North of England. 



799 



Grazing with Sheep and Cattle. — On moorland farms, graz- 
ing with cattle helps greatly in improving the herbage, as cattle 
eat far more of the stemmy herbage than sheep. At Cockle 
Park, where pasture of the poorest character has been effectively 
improved by basic slag, grazing with sheep alone gives gains of 
about 100 lb. live weight per acre during each grazing season, 
whereas when the plots are stocked with cattle and sheep about 
double this live weight increase is obtained. The plots grazed 
with sheep alone develop much stemmy herbage and clover 
development is checked, whereas grazing with cattle and sheep 
gives pasture with little stemmy herbage and a close and firm 
bottom of grass and clover plants. 

Trials in Scotland. — Dr. Shirra Gibb, in 1906, reported on 
trials of basic slag, kainit and lime on hill grazings at twenty 
centres in Scotland.* The dressings per acre w^ere, 5 cwt. slag, 
10 cwi. ground lime, and 2^- cwt. kainit. The slag and lime were 
applied on half acre plots and the kainit was applied as a cross 
dressing. 

The conclusions drawn were that basic slag may be expected 
to do good on clay soils, with clay or tilly subsoils, which have 
small clover plants and poorly eaten grasses, and that in such 
cases kainit was not required. On moory, mossy and generally 
black topped land slag was evidently helpful, with probably in 
this case the addition of kainit. If the sod was very dense and 
the roots thick and matted it v/as doubtful if any manuring 
would pay. 

Ploughing out Matty Turf. — Much of the old grass land 
ploughed out during the last years of the War had a thick matty 
covering on the surface. This covering is a common cause of 
poverty in moorland hay and grazing land and has been encou- 
raged by grazing with sheep alone, or by continually mowing for 
hay, usually late in the autumn. The application of nitrogenous 
manures like sulphate of ammonia and nitrate of soda has tended 
to develop this matty covering, as such manures encourage the 
wirv grasses and check clover plants. On the Palace Leas 
meadow hay field at Cockle Park, sulphate of ammonia, applied 
continuously for over twenty j^ears, has developed such a mat 
to a depth of over 3 in. of the same character as is to be found 
on much of our moorlands, whereas where basic slag alone has 
been regularly applied no such mat has been formed and the soil 
is close to the surface. In the former case the aftermath is of 
a harsh and wiry character which the grazing stock refuse to 

; ; • ; : — - — 

* TTavj<ocfioits of (he Ilirjhland and Af/ricidUiral Society, 1900, p. 80. 



800 Moorland Grazing in the North of England. [Dec, 



eat, thus leaving the wiry herbage to accumulate on the surface 
for years. 

Where old grass land with a mat of this character has been 
ploughed out and, after one or two corn crops, or being put 
through ra rotation, has been judiciously sown down with the 
right seeds mixture containing wild white clover, and treated with 
basic slag or other phosphatic manure, young pastures have 
resulted of a far greater value than the poor benty pasture which 
was ploughed out. 

At three centres at least in Northumberland some moorland 
is now being ploughed out, the object being to bury matted turf 
and to bring soil to the surface. It is recommended that such 
ploughing be done early in the winter, with a disc coulter, to 
bury the turf as effectively as possible. Harrowing should be 
well done in spring with a disc harrow if possible. High grade 
basic slag at the rate of 10 cwt. per acre, or finely ground North 
African phosphates at the rate of 6 J cwt. per acre* should be 
harrowed in, as well as sulphate of ammonia, f cwt. per acre, 
to assist the oat crop. Old fashioned tillering oats, as the Sandy 
variety, may be sown at about 3 bushels an acre. A suitable 
seeds mixture should be sown immediately after. For 
this purpose the following seeds mixture per acre is 
suggested : — 18 lb. perennial ryegrass, 8 lb. cocksfoot gi'ass, 
3 lb. red clover (preferably late flowering) and 1 lb. wild white 
clover. Care must be taken to get a firm seed bed with a good 
tilth on the surface. The oats should be mown green and made 
into hay, unless they promise to mature in good time. Success 
in this direction would provide on moorland farms hay and 
pasture of a most valuable character. 



* For particulars of these manures see this Journal for Sept., 11*22, p. 519 ; 
Oct., 1922, p. GOO ; and Nov., 1922, p. 706. 



1922.] 



Labour on the Farm. 



801 



LABOUR ON THE FARM. 

II. 

A. G. EusTON, B.A., B.Sc. (Lond.), D.Sc. (Leeds), 
and J. S. Simpson, B.Sc, 
The University, Leeds. 

[The first part of this article in the November issue oj tlie 
Journal dealt with the influence of the War on the labour 
bill.'] 

A REVIEW of the labour bill per acre on the farms of which the 
accounts were available, showed such large variations that an 
attempt was made to analyse the factors responsible for the 
variations. 

Size of Farm. — The farms v^ere grouped according to size 
and the average labour bill per acre was calculated, in an attempt 
to see if size of farm was a determining factor in the labour bill. 
Table V illustrates the results obtained. 

Table V. — Variation of Labour Bill with Size of Farm. 



Sise of Farm, 
acres. 

0-50 
50-100 
100-150 
150-200 
200-250 
250-300 
Over 300 



No. of 
Farms- 

3 
4 
4 
5 
3 
3 
7 



N'o. of A cres 
comprised. 

96 
300 
504 
863 
642 
784 
2,.526 



Labour Bill per 
acre, 1921-1922. 
£ s. d. 
10 4 10 
3 12 11 
3 17 11 

3 

4 2 
1 17 7 
3 19 1 



As was expected the labour bill per acre on holdings of less 
than 50 acres was much greater than that on larger farms. On 
the basis of size alone it is impossible to correlate the remaining 
figures, and consequently the influence of a second factor — the 
proportion of the farm under grass — was investigated. 

Proportion of Grass. — The figures obtained are tabulated in 
Table VI. 

Table VI. — Variation of Labour Bill with Proportion 



Percentage 
of Farm 
under Grass. 

0-20 
21-40 
41-60 
61-80 
81-100 



No. of 
Farms. 

2 
8 
7 
5 



of Grass. 

Acres 
Comprised. 

336 
1,545 
1,754 
1,110 

608 



Lahour Bill 
per acre. 
£ s. d . 
6 3 5 

3 

4 2 
2 12 



7 
3 
4 



3 19 



Group. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



802 



Labour on the Farm. 



[Dec, 



The group of farms with the lowest proportion of grass land 
has the highest labour bill per acre. This was to be expected, 
but the reduction of 50 per cent, in the labour bill which occurs 
in the next group, was not anticipated. When the figures for 
the other groups, with a still higher proportion of grass land, 
are examined, it will be realised that (he proportion of grass, 
although influencing the labour bill, is not by any means the 
only factor. The character of the farming undertaken on the 
farms in the last two groups supplied the reason for the labour 
bill figures. The farms in the last group are all grass land dairy 
farms where large milking herds are kept and milk is produced 
on highly intensive lines. Consequently the labour bill on these 
farms is high. The fourth group, on the other hand, is com- 
posed almost entirely of farms where either summer grazing of 
bullocks or the breeding of sheep is the main branch followed, 
and as the labour requirements of these classes of stock are 
small, the labour bill per acre is correspondingly low. 

It would appear, therefore, that the amount of the labour bill 
on any particular farm, provided the labour is organised to the 
best advantage J is determined by the interaction of at least three 
factors : — 

1. The size of the farm. 

2. The proportion of the land under gi^ass. 

3. The system of farming adopted. 

Of these, the third is probably the most important. 

System ol Farming Adopted. — On most of the farms which 
have been costed labour and time sheets have been kept from 
which it has been found possible to extract each year the number 
of days of manual, horse or tractor labour einployed per acre of 
each individual crop, or field, or per head of each variety of 
stock. In Table VII are given the average results obtained on 
all farms costed from 1918 to 1922, while, for the sake of com- 
parison the figures quoted by Bridges as obtained from an East 
Midlands farm in 1918 are also given.* 

When it is remembered that the figures quoted by Bridges for 
the grain and pulse crops are exclusive of the necessary work for 
threshing and delivering, that on this East Midland farm of 
965 acres a large amount of steam cultivation, with its accom- 
panying comparatively small amount of manual labour, was 
carried out on much of the wheat, oats and barley, and that 
such operations as hedging, fencing, draining, ditching, road 

* See tliis Journal, July, 1922, ''Labour nri.'aniH;rtiun on an East Midlands 
Farm, by Archibald Bridges." 



1922.] 



Labour o>s the Farm. 



803 



repairs, which we have allocated to the various crops, have in 
the other case been included in the overhead or establishment 
charges, it will be seen that the agreement between figures 
found for one jesn' on one farm and those found on an average 
of approximately 20 farms for 4 years is closer than might have 
been expected. The big outstanding differences appear to be 
those found in the cases of the swedes and pasture. 

Swedes on the East Midlands farm would probably have 
mostly been fed off by sheep, thus eliminating the cost of lifting, 
while in the case of the pasture the labour involved in the 
so-called establishment charges, which we have found to average 
from three-quarters to one day per ricre, would readily account 
for the difference. 



Table VII. — Distribution of Manual Labour. 

Number of Day per acre. 





Average of all 






Farms Cos ted, 


East Midlands 


Roots : — 


1918-22. 


Farm, 1918.* 


Carrots 


560 


61-4 


Potatoes 


34-1 


33-8 


Mangolds 


23-7 


16-7 


Swedes 


23-0 


8-3 


Soft Turnips ... 


21-2 




Rape and Kale 


10-6 




Cabbage 


22-2 




Cereals : — 






Wheat 


8-7 


4-3 


Oats 


8-0 


4-3 


Barley ... 


7-7 


4-6 


Peas 


10-6 


7-7 


Beans ... 


8-2 


4-0 


Linseed 


9-4 




Seeds : — 






Mown ... 


3-1 


2-2 


Grazed... 


1-3 


0-7 


Meadow Hay 


2-5 


2-1 


Forage Crojjs 


6-1 


0-0 


Pasture ... 


0-9 


0-1 



Number of Days per head, of Stock. 



Average of all Farms 
Cos ted, 1918-22. 

Cows 24-5 

Other Cattle 6 7 

Pigs 2-8 

Sheep 0-9 

* This Journal, Vol. XXIX, No. 5, p. 450. ~ 

c 2 



804 



Labour on the Farm. 



[Dec, 



• While the average figures only, as found by us, have been 
quoted, yet from farm to farm, and even from year to year, the 
amount of manual labour employed on any particular crop has 
been found to vary considerably with the season, the type of 
soil and the capability of the farmer as a manager. It is, how- 
ever, quite evident that on an arable farm the man who concen- 
trates on potatoes, carrots and possibly peas, will have a higher 
labour bill than one who concentrates on cereals ; and the man 
who attempts to supply succulent food to his stock in the form 
of forage crops should have an advantage as far as labour bills 
are concerned over one who supplies it in the form of roots. 
On farm E.T.T., consisting of B04 acres of light land, 89 per 
cent, of which is arable, and on which 41 acres of potatoes, 
10 acres of carrots and 15 acres of peas -were grown last year, 
the labour bill amounted to £5 8s. 7d. per acre, as compared 
with £2 17s. 7d. on farm A.T.J. . a farm with approximately 
the same proportion of arable land Hie texture of which rendered 
it typically wheat land. 

On farms which may be looked upon as " grass land farms," 
the labour bill per acre is bound to vary according to the kind of 
stock that the grass land is carrying. 

Thus on farm P.O.H. the wages bill amounted last year to- 
£6 18s. per acre. Here 90 per cent, of the land is grass, but- 
milk production on the intensive svstem is carried on. 

On farm E.P.M., engaged in the breeding, rearing and fatten- 
ing of cattle, the labour bill amounted to £2 9s. 9d. per acre, 
and on W.S.S.. a similar farm, to £2 19s. 5d. 

On farm W.J.C., a Dales farm of 321 acres, 76 per cent, of 
which is grass, though not altogether a sheep farm, yet one on 
which the farmer specialises in sheep, the labour bill amounted 
only to £1 10s. 9d. per acre. 

Justification of Labour Bill. — If one were asked, ''what 
labour bill per acre is a farmer justified in having at the present 
time? " no definite answer could be given. The labour bill 
on every farm must be justified by results. 

The labour bill during the year 1921-1922 on 26 Yorkshire 
farms of 5,285 acres has been examined, and was found to vary 
from about ^£1 8s. to ^918, with an average of about £S 12s. 6d. 
per acre. 

If we judge by " labour bill " alone, it would appear that 
certainly the figures regarding the first 7, and probably those of 
the first 12 farms were too high, and that the last 5 and possibly 
the last 11 farms were not paying sufficiently high wages. 



1922.] 



Labour on the Farm. 



805 



Farms, however, are not run on philanthropic Hnes, and the 
final decision as to what each individual farmer is justified in 
paying as wages to his men will be decided by what his men 
are enabled to do for him. 

In other words the wages bill on each farm will finally be 
justified by the " gross income " or better still the " net out- 
put " which the labour employed on the farm obtained. 

When w^e put the actual labour bill per acre against the income 
received for every pound spent in labour, or the net output 
obtained from the farm for every £5 spent in labour, we can 
readily judge whether the labour bill on any particular farm was 
justified or not, and can certainly form an opinion as to the 
efficiency of its labour organisation. On the average last year 
on the whole of the 26 farms the gross income was roughly four 
and a half times the labour bill, and for every £5 spent in labour, 
the average net output amounted to £6 5s. ; in other words last 
year labour took approximately 80 per cent, of the output. 

In the case of farm H.W.C. the labour bill was decidedly high, 
though not so unreasonably high as might at first have been 
imagined. The gross income from this holding amounted to 
£68 per acre. Had the labour bill borne the ratio to the gross 
income that has been found to obtain on the 26 farms quoted, 
either the gross income should have amounted to £80 per acre 
instead of £6S, or the income actually obtained would have jus- 
tified an expenditure not of £18, but of just under £14 per acre. 
The net output from this holding amounted to £21 8s. per 
acre, which should have sufficed to satisfy the reasonable 
demands of farmer, labour and landlord. As the land was 
rented at ;£3 5s. per acre, and as the labour bill absorbed just 
over £18. it will be seen that little more than half-a-crown per 
acre would be left as profit for the farmer. If we distribute this 
net output, not according to what might be looked upon as a fair 
proportion for each claimant to take, but according to the raverage 
proportion actually determined last year, it will be found that 
of a net output of ;£21 8s. per acre, laboiir might have been 
expected last year to claim ^£17 5s. instead of over £18 as actually 
received. The labour bill on this farm may therefore be con- 
sidered as approximately £4 5s. per acre too high when judged 
by the gross income obtained from the farm, and about 15s. per 
acre too high when judged by the net output. 

On farm R.S.F., a small holding of 32 acres where the labour 
bill amounted to £18 8s. 8d. per acre, the gi'oss income to 
£48 123. 4d. and the net output to £8 18s. lOd. per acre, the 



806 



Labour on the Farm. 



[Dec, 



labour bill was again too high from whatever standpoint we view 
it. Judged by the wages actually paid on other farms, it was 
approximately £9 10s. per acre too high; taking into account 
the high gross income obtained from the holding it is still more 
than £4 per acre too high; and when, finally, judged by net 
output, it is at least £6 too high. One would certainly be 
standing on safe ground in pointing out to the management 
that the labour bill on that particular farm must be kept within 
the limits of ^8 per acre, if it is to be run as a commercial 
success. 

On farm P.O.H., 120 acres, the labour bill amounted last year 
to £6 18s. per acre, the gross income to £57 9s. lOd., and the 
net output to =£22 6s. Id. per acre. The labour bill per acre 
was approximately double what has been found to obtain on all 
the farms costed, yet in this case labour was not taking more 
than its fair share. On the basis of the gross income, the 
farmer was paying £5 per acre, and on the basis of the net 
output nearly £11 per acre less than the average so paid on the 
other farms. The labour bill here was high, but amply justified; 
every penny was well spent, and all the monejT- well earned. 

On farm C.M.F. the labour bill was £6 4s. lOd. per acre, the 
gross income £11 18s., and the net output less than £1 per 
acre. Here the labour bill was undoubtedly high, and there 
was nothing in either the gross or net returns to justify the high 
wages so paid. Whether this was the fault of the labour engaged 
or of the management concerned could easily be shown by 
further investigation of the accounts. On the basis of the gross 
income obtained, there was apparently justification for an expen- 
diture only of ^£3 per acre instead of over £6, while had labour 
been content with 80 per cent, of the net output, the proportion 
in the average figures, it could only have laid claim to approxi- 
mately 15s. per acre. 

On farm M.A.H., the labour bill amounted only to £2 12s. 
per acre. Even this low figure was too high if we were judging 
by results, for the gross income amxounted only to £6 6s. 9d. 
and the net output to £0 14s. 9d. per acre. Of the gross income, 
labour took 41 per cent., as compared with an average list year 
of 2B per cent, on the other farms ; and an amount equal to 
349 per cent, of the net output as compared with an average of 
80 per cent. 

On the other hand labour bills on farms H.N.O. and W.A.E., 
and possibly on J.H.S., might with advantage have been in- 
creased, and it would most probably have paid the farmers in 
these cases to have made such an increase. 



1922.1 



Labour on the Farm. 



807 



Labour Bill, 

per acre, 
actualhi paid 




Gross Income 



per acre. 
£ s. (1. 

17 19 1 



Net Output, 



per acre. 
£ s. d. 

4 2 1 



H.N.O. 



1 8 6 



W.A.R. ... 1 16 3 ... y 18 9 ... 5 2 1 
J.H.S 1 19 8 ... 9 12 8 ... 3 18 

Had labour on these farms been paid on results at average rates 
comparable to those paid on the whole of the farms, one would 
have felt that on H.N.O. a labour bill of approximately £S 15s., 
on W.A.E. of approximately £3 7s. 6d., and on J.H.S. of 
approximately £2 17s. 6d., could not have been considered too 
high. 

Conclusions. — In our opinion the following conclusions may 
be drawn from this examination of farm accounts in Yorkshire : — 
a. From the outbreak of the War up to the year 1918 labour 
was not getting its fair share of the increased prosperity of 
the farms. 

h. It was not until January, 1920, that the increase in 
wages on the farm had actually risen in proportion to the 
increase of the cost of living. 

c. At the time of the abolition of the Agricultural Wages 
Board the percentage increase in farm wages was approxi- 
mately 20 points above the percentage increase in the cost of 
living, and in April, 1922, at least 45 points above. 

d. If the claim be admitted that labour is entitled to a wage 
proportionate to the increased cost of living, on present rates 
it would not be until April, 1923, that the surplus it has 
obtained since January, 1920, would counterbalance the deficit 
from the outbreak of the War un to Januarv, 1920. 

e. The maximum percentage increase in farm wages since 
the outbrerak of the War has agreed very closely with that 
which has obtained in other industries. 

/. The percentage increase in the farm wages which were 
being paid in April, 1922, was apparently higher than in 
m.any other industries. 

g. During the year 1919-20 labour took on the average 
49 per cent., during 1920-21 78 per cent., and during 1921-22 
84 per cent, of the net output. 

h. During the last two years it has been getting more than 
the industry could reasonably be expected to grant. 

?. On any well managed farm the labour bill will be deter- 
mined by (1) the size of the farm, (2^ the proportion of the 
land under grass, and (3) the system of farming adopted. 



808 Council of Agriculture for Wales. [Dec, 



' The manual labour required for carrots will be approxi- 
mately 5J times, for potatoes BJ times, and for roots 2J times 
as great as that required for corn crops; for seeds hay it will 
be approximately J, for meadow hay J, and for pasture J of 
that required for a corn crop. 

k. The manual labour required in attention to a cow is 4 
times that required in attention to a bullock, 8 times that 
required in attention to a pig, 24 times that required in 
attention to a sheep. 

I. For the year ending 81st March, 1022, the average 
labour bill amounted to approximately £S 15s. per acre, but 
varied considerably on different farms. Last year it should 
not have been more than a quarter of the gross income, while 
on the best managed farms it rarely exceeded one-fifth of the 
gross income. Even last year, it should not have exceeded 
80 per cent, of the net output, and, if the share which the 
farmer is to receive is again to become a reasonable one, it 
should not greatly exceed 40 per cent, of the net output. 

****** 



COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURE FOR 

WALES: 

THE AGKICULTURAL POLICY RECOMMENDED 
BY THE COUNCIL. 

A special meeting of the Council of Agriculture for Wales was 
held at the Eaven Hotel, Shrewsbury, on the 13th October, 
1922, with Mr. W. S. Miller in the chair. The meeting was 
called in accordance with the decision of the Council at its half- 
yearly statutory meeting in May in order to consider the report 
of the Sub-Committee appointed to draft suggestions for the 
formulation of an agricultural policy for Wales. The report of 
the Committee was considered in detail and adopted in the form 
in which it appears below. 

I. Production from the Land. — We are of opinion that the land in 
Wales, which is mainly under grass, is not, from the point of view of the nation, 
producing what it should do in the way of food. We are convinced that a 
material increase in the production of cereals and forage crops is possible, and 
that this would result in a like increase in the output of live stock and live 
stock products. With the exception of a temporary change of practice during 
the war, there has been a steady and striking diminution in the area under 
cultivation in Wales during the period since 1871. A very large proportion of 
the land that has gone out of cultivation is now under grass of extremely poor 
quality, and the output from it is surprisingly low. That this land is capable 



1922.] 



Council of Agriculture for Wales. 



809 



of improvement is evident from the results of experiments, but the area on 
which any systematic eltort at improvement has been made, is, having regard 
to the total area involved, deplorably small. 

A comparison between the areas under cultivation in 1871 and 1921 is 
shown in the table below : — 
Crojj. 

Wheat ... 
Barley ... 
Oats 



1871. 


1921. 


o/o Decrease. 


Acres. 


Acres. 




126,334 


38,750 


69-3 


169,751 


86,716 


48-9 


253,672 


229,464 


9-5 


549,757 


354,930 


35-4 


51,853 


26,152 


49-6 


77,213 


60,351 


21-8 


1,110,170 


774,724 


30-2 



Total Cereals 
Potatoes 

Turnips, Swedes and Mangolds 
Arable Land 

We are aware that, while the area under cultivation has decreased, the live 
stock of the country has increased during that period. We give below a table 
showing the live stock population under different heads in the years 1871 
and 1921 :— o/^ increase or 

Class. 1871. 1921. Decrease. 

Cattle 596,588 724,417 + 21*4 

Sheep 2,706,415 3,216,877 + 18-9 

Pigs 225,456 215,362 - 4*5 

It is now generally recognised that, as a rule, the production of food on 
arable land is largely in excess of what it is on grass land. Although there 
has been a large increase in cattle and sheep in the period under review, it is, 
in OUT opinion, doubtful whether the increase that has taken place under these 
heads is sufficient to compensate for the reduction in the area of land under 
cultivation during the same period. Having regard to all the circumstances, 
we have serious doubt as to whether the present production of agricultural 
land in Wales, taken in terms of actual food values, is equal to what it was in 
1871. 

We have already drawn attention to the very large acreage of pasture in 
Wales that is of inferior quality, and this is apparent to everybody. It is true 
that nmch of the land is naturally poor and that grass of superior quality can- 
not be expected in these circumstances. We feel sure, however, that a very 
large proportion of the pasture land in Wales, even though it may be on soil 
that is naturally poor, can be much improved if proper methods are adopted to 
that end. The experience of the last twenty years has clearly demonstrated 
that such manures as basic slag can be used on pastures to enormous advantage. 
In view of the excellent results obtained in places where this has been tried, it 
is a matter for surprise, as well as concern, that the application of such man- 
ures to grass land has not become a much more extensive practice. 

II. Reform of the Land Laws. — We urge the necessity for reform- 
ing the law as it relates to land so as to ensure to the tenant farmer — 

(1) A fair rent, which, in all cases of dispute, should be fixed by ar- 
bitration, the right to demand such arbitration being given to both the 
owner and the tenant, the existing Acts, where necessary, being amended. 

(2) Full compensation for all improvments, the Agricultural Holdings 
Acts, 1908 to 1921, being so amended as to enable a tenant to carry out 



810 



Council of Agriculture for Wales. 



[Dec, 



•any improvement suitable for the ordinary working of the farm on notice 
being given to the owner, and to be entitled to compensation under the 
Acts unless the owner proves to the satisfaction of the Ministry of 
Agriculture, as an independent authority, that the proposed improvement 
is unnecessary^, Part I of the First Schedule of the Act of 1908 being 
revised accordingly. 

(3) Security of tenure conditional upon (a) the practice of good hus- 
bandry by the tenant (b) the land not being required in the public interest, 
or by the owner to farm either himself or by a member of his family, 
in which case he should be required to prove to the satisfaction of an in- 
dependent authority that his grounds for requiring possession are reason- 
able. 

We fully recognise that the landlord and tenant system which has long 
been a feature of the agricultural economy of this country has great and 
obvious advantages. It is clear, however, that, under the pressure of circum- 
stances, that system is inevitably breaking up, and some other system has to 
be substituted for it to an increasing degree as the years pass. The demand 
for security of tenure on the part of tenant farmers is mainly due to the fact 
that so many owners choose, or are compelled, to dispose of their estates. The 
only alternative to the landlord and tenant system that could give the 
tenant a fuller measure of security would seem to be either universal State 
ownership of land or a scheme by which occupiers are enabled to become the 
owners of their own holdings. No system yet devised is free from some 
disadvantage. 

We recognise that for the occupier to be the owner of his own farm is not 
wholly an advantage either to the farmer himself or to the State. Financial 
embarrassment in such cases is frequent, and, while there are exceptions, 
experience does not show that those who own their own holdings use the land 
to better purpose than those who are tenants. On the other hand, it is 
undeniable that a large number of those who have been brought up on the 
land, and of the smaller farmers particularly, have a strong desire to own their 
own holdings, partly because of the sense of security that ownership gives 
them, and partly also on quite other grounds. In view of this, we consider 
that the State should otfer facilities to enable those who so desire to become 
the owners of their own holdings. On the same principle we are of opinion 
that, subject to proper conditions, the State should extend facilities to owners 
of estates for the purpose of improving and developing their properties. 

III. Position of Workers.— We feel that there is need for improving 
the position of the agricultural labourer, both by securing for him an adequate 
wage, with the assistance of local Conciliation Boards, and by providing him 
with better opportunities for cultivating land on his own account. We urge 
upon agriculturists the desirability of providing land voluntarily for agri- 
cultural labourers, wherever possible. We also feel strongly that steps should 
be taken to provide, with the assistance of the State, local authorities and 
private owners, adequate and suitable housing accommodation, including 
tenements of the cottage holding type, in rural districts. 

IV. Small Holdings.— We are fully in sympathy with the policy of 
creating Small Holdings with which the State is so definitely and closely 
identified. The mere splitting up of the land into holdings of a small size is. 



1922.] 



CouNcn; OF Agriculture for Wales. 



811 



not, however, necessarily an advantage. We are satisfied that a large numher 
of tlie small farms, so typical of Wales, are entirely uneconomic as they are. 
To be successful they should be either reduced still further in size or made 
larger. The nature of the land in many parts of the country is such that it 
can only be worked economically in large farms. It is also true that there is 
good land in favoured situations which could be put to much more profitable 
use if worked as intensive small holdings than is the case now when it forms 
part of medium sized holdings used for mixed farming or stock-raising. We 
are simply reiterating what every reformer has emphasised, when we say that 
it is essential, in the interests of the niation, to maintain a large and flourishing 
rural population, but we desire at least to associate ourselves with that view. 

We consider that the creation of small holdings and the improvement of the 
position of the agricultural worker on the lines indicated in the preceding 
paragraph would go a long way towards solving the problem of maintaining 
a rural population, provided that a definite policy is pursued of selecting suitable 
men for the holdings, and that the holdings themselves are placed on suitable 
land and in favourable situations. 

V. Agricultural Education.— Agriculturists have reasons to l)e 
gratified with the additional provision that has recently been made in 
connection with Agricultural Education and Research. So strongly convinced, 
however, are we that a high standard of Education and technical knowledge 
is to be more than ever the need of the agricultural community of the future, 
that we can regard the provision now made as adequate only for the time 
being. Although the position of Agricultural Education and Research is 
more satisfactory than it has ever been, we feel that much remains to be done 
in connection with general education in the rural districts of the country. In 
our opinion, the ordinary curriculum of the rural Elementary Schools should 
be adapted to the needs of the district, and in all such schools Elementary 
Science with a rural bias should be taught. We also consider that in any 
Continuation Schools that may be established in rural districts in the future 
the curriculum should be so framed as to arouse the pupils' interest in rural 
life. Amongst other things, we think it is eminently desirable, on educational 
and other grounds, that the attention of the pupils should be drawn to the 
principles of Economics and such subjects as Farm Accounts. Something in 
this direction might be done with advantage even in the Elementary Schools. 

VI. Road Transport.— We strongly urge the necessity for improving 
and widening existing district roads and for the construction of new roads to 
pi-ovide routes for road motors to convey traffic between country districts 
and railway centres. 

Yll. Credit.— We consider that a Credit Scheme on the lines of the 
scheme in operation during the War should be estabhshed and so developed 
as to enable farmers and smallholders to obtain temporary assistance for the 
purpose of carrying on their business. 

VIII. Land Drainage.— For the country as a whole there is hardly 
any improvement that is more needed than land drainage, and we are greatly 
concerned that operations under the Drainage Act of 1018 have had to be 
suspended. We strongly recommend that the provisions of the Act should be 
put fully into operation as soon as possible, as we are convinced that large 



812 



The Duck as an Egg -Producer. [Dec, 



tracts of land in Wales that are now useless for agricultural purposes, would, 
if properly drained, become highly productive. 

IX, Local Taxation. — We are of opinion that it is necessary to readjust 
the burden of local taxation so far as it affects agricultural land, inasmuch as 
under the present system the farming industry is over-rated. The farmer's 
business involves the occupation of a disproportionate amount of rateable 
property, as regards its income earning capacity, as compared with other 
industries, and certain of the services in respect of which rates are levied are 
of less benefit to the farmer than to the other classes of the community. 

We would call attention to the view expressed in the Majority Report of 
the Royal Commission on Local Taxation, 1896, to the effect that, in view of 
the character of agricultural property and the amount of the profits derivable 
therefrom, and the relative extent to which benefits accrued to the property 
and to its occupier by reason of the expenditure incurred by local authorities' 
it would be inequitable were rates to be paid on the basis of its full annual 
value. This was recognised in the Agricultural Rates Act of 189G, which 
made provision for the assessment of agricultural land at one-half of its 
rateable value, a fixed contribution equivalent to one-half of the rates paid on 
agricultural land in 1895 being made from the exchequer. While, however, 
the rates have increased enormously since that year, the relief afforded under 
the Act of 1896 has remained the same. It is readily admitted that the 
incidence of local taxation at the present time is unjust, and that the whole 
system of assessment to local rates requires reconsideration. Pending- 
opportunity for such revision, we consider that the differential rating in 
favour of agricultural land should be extended, and that for rating purposes 
the occupier of agricultural land should be called upon to pay rates on one- 
fourth instead of one-half of its rateable value, the deficiency being made 
good by means of an Exchequer grant to the Rating Authorities. 

* * ¥^ * * * 

THE DUCK AS AN EGG-PRODUCER. 

A, T. Johnson. 

During the last two or three years the extraordinary prolifi- 
cacy of the laying breeds of ducks has been brought prominently 
to public notice by the wonderful results attained at la^dng tests. 
These events, however, while undoubtedly proving the great 
superiority of certain strains of ducks over pullets of the highest 
fecundity, in so far as number and weight of eggs are concerned*, 
do not indicate what is to the farming community no less impor- 
tant, viz., the peculiar position of the laying duck as an asset 
in the economics of agTiculture. To know what a flock of Eunner 
or Khaki Campbell ducks is capable of producing under certain 
conditions is of undeniable value ; but the farmer must also 
know what such a flock is likely to do under free range manage- 
ment where there are considerations to be met which do not 
occur within the enclosures of the laying test. 



1922.] 



The Duck as an Egg -Producer. 



It may therefore serve a useful purpose to discuss briefly the 
merits of the laying duck in its relation to the ordinary 
practices of farming. It may be said, in passing, that, pheno- 
menal as the fecundity of the ducks competing in the tests has 
been, it is the opinion of practical duck-keeping farmers, that 
if such results can be achieved in the conditions prevailing at 
these tests there is reason to believe that they can be equalled 
on the farm. That, indeed, has been my own experience in 
free-range duck farming for eggs. 

Of not less significance than heavy laying is the question of 
upkeep. Here the farmer is at a distinct advantage, and it is 
this matter of upkeep, or cost of production, together with its 
bearing not only upon direct profits but upon the economics of 
farm practice which must be emphasised here. 

The laying duck is essentially a forager, and that charac- 
teristic is so strongly marked that the Indian Runner is to the 
old farm waddler what a light and active, laying-type Leghorn 
is to some lethargic Asiatic table bird. Given a wide range on 
almost any kind of land and the Runner will very nearly feed 
itself from spring to autumn, though many duck-keepers con- 
sider that it generally pays to give a good feed at night. During 
that period, for example, I have maintained flocks of these ducks 
on a single light feed of oats, or dredge corn, daily, and they 
have laid abundantly. Not infrequently, indeed, as during 
warm, rainy weather when the forage was good, or when the 
birds were on stubble, hand feeding has been entirely sus- 
pended without the egg yield being impaired in the slightest 
degree. 

Significant as these things are in considering the financial 
aspect of the matter, the farmer will not lose sight of the fact 
that in maintaining itself and providing eggs the laying duck is 
doing great service by destroying insect pests. The income 
derived from its eggs may be the only direct and tangible return 
upon which to estimate the bird's actual value to the balance 
sheet, but few of us who have kept such flocks in field colonies 
but will do the duck due justice by crediting it with taking the 
part of pest destroyer in the general scheme of farm work, and 
this is not to be considered lightly. 

Omnivorous as the duck is, it is animal food wiiich she seeks 
with the greatest keenness, and the more she lays the acuter 
becomes her appetite for such a diet. Those who have kept 
laying ducks in confined areas know full well how necessary meat 
in some form is to good laying, how much more necessary it is 



su 



The Duck as an Egg -Producer. 



[Dec, 



than for laying Jiens. It is the natural craving for proteids in 
the shape of insect life which makes the Eunner duck such an 
untiring forager. 

Farm land varies considerably in the quantity of insect life 
and grubs which it carries, but few farms, grass or arable, are 
so fortunate as not to be sufficiently stocked with pests of this 
kind to keep busily employed Hocks of ducks disposed at the 
rate of 6 to 10 to the acre. I have, on suitable land, kept fully 
twice as many birds the seasons through for several successive 
years, but the best of feeding ground becomes exhausted, so that 
periodical changes are desirable. The fact that flocks of these 
ducks will considerably reduce the stock of insect hfe on a given 
area supports the contention made by some people that such 
birds are natural destroyers of many noxious insects. 

Perhaps one of the most noteworthy examples of what such 
ducks are capable of performing on behalf of agriculture is that 
afforded by the fact that to my knowledge they are devourers 
of the fresh water snail which is directly responsible for liver- 
fluke in sheep. 

At certain periods of the year I have known Eunner ducks to 
devour enormous numbers of crane flies (the parents of the 
leather- jacket grub) as these emerged from their pupa cases, 
and as the " rise " from the pasture of this destructive insect 
often takes place during the dusk of late evening, ducks, which 
are often most active at such an hour, have an opportunity if 
not shut up too early of securing this prey which other poultry 
cannot enjoy. 

Slugs and snails are eaten with gieat avidity by ducks, and 
there are instances on record which tell us how a flock of these 
birds has completely eradicated the little white slug which is 
often so injurious to clover and o^'her pasturage. The click- 
beetle (parent of the wire-worm.) is also sought for and devoured, 
as examinations of crop contents hare plainly shown, and 
another pest which, like the crane-fly, is often to be secured at 
dusk, is the cockchafer. These fat and luscious morsels, both 
the young adults as they emerge from the ground and the egg- 
depositing females, are greedily swallowed by foraging ducks. 

Though it is doubtful whether ducks are able to have much 
efl^ect in destroying noxious larvae in grass the same end is even- 
tually achieved by the eradication of the parent insects. On 
arable land, however, especially when ploughing or other work 
is in progress, the quantity of wire -worm, leather- jackets, chafer 
grubs and other larvte eaten by ducks is enormous. Their appe- 



19-22.] 



The Duck as an Egg-Producer. 



815 



tites never flag when such fare is being turned up, and so long 
as the plonghman is at work so long will they follow at his heels, 
and examine every particle of the soil much more thoroughly 
and exhaustively than will the attendant oruUs and rooks. 

One need not dwell further upon the stimulating effect which 
this insect fare has upon the prolificacy of laying ducks, nor is 
it necessary to point out the convincing lesson in agricultural 
economics which is conveved bv the above statements. Prac- 
tical, wide-awake farmers can draw their own conclusions. 

There are one or two other matters, however, which may be 
mentioned, and one of these is the question of injury to growing 
ci'ops which may be done by flocks of ducks. In regard to this 
one can confidently say that no class of poultry is more easily 
kept within bounds than ducks, and it is the common experience 
of all who have kept them that they prefer pasture or waste land 
to arable. Since they do not scratch, ducks can range fields 
of young roots, potatoes and other crops without doing other 
than good, and the flocks can be run on seed grass and clover 
without any fear of the young plants being injured as may 
sometimes happen with other poultry. 

They will, liowever, eat and damage any young plants of the 
cabbage tribe, and will burrow for newly-sown corn, and may 
consequently be poisoned by copper sulphate used as a seed 
dressing. 

Finally, the Indian Piunner, and indeed most of the laying 
breeds, keep perfectly healthy and produce fertile eggs without 
swimming water. All they need is water to drink, morning and 
evening, and the realisation of this cliaracteristic should remove 
what has for generations bred an ajitipathy towards ducks on 
the farm, viz., the complaint that they foul the drinking water 
of other live-stock. 



****** 



816 Dry-Meal Hoppers for Pigs. [Dec, 



DRY-MEAX. HOPPERS FOR PIGS. 

Captain Callcott Eeilly, M.B.E., B.Sc. 

What may be termed the self-feerling of dry meal to pigs is a 
question that is receiving considerable attention at present, and 
hence certain results obtained, and reasons for adopting this 
method on a commercial scale, mav be of some interest. This 
article has reference to a commercial herd of some sixty sows, 
all the progeny of which are kept on the farm, and fattened for 
a co-operative bacon factory. 

The herd was started in 1920 by a Danish bailiff, to be run on 
Danish lines. Good farrowing and fattening sties were built, 
but the pigs did not do as well as might have been expected. 
The experiment was tried of running pigs in the store stage out 
m orchards, which was an improvement. Then the sows with 
their litters were run in orchards, which was another improve- 
ment — scour in the piglings, which had been a source of trouble, 
becoming very much less prevalent. The pigs in the fattening 
sties, although well fed three times a d.ay and kept scrupulously 
clean, did not thrive as they might have done, and the net 
result was that the pigs, weighing about" 16 stone alive, averaged 
nearly 9 months old when ready for the factory. 

Experiment with Store Pigs. — It was while seeking for 
improvements that papers by Professor Evvard, of Iowa, U.S.A., 
were obtained, at the end of 1921, describing the remarkable 
results achieved by self -feeding pigs, and allowing them their 
choice of carbohydrates and albuminoids. It was therefore 
decided to try the method on a bunch of young stores running 
out. A self-feeder was improvised out of an old sheep hay rack, 
by fixing flat galvanised iron sheets inside the V rods, and cutting 
boles at the bottom for the meal to run through into the trough. 
The hopper thus contrived was divided transversely into half a 
dozen different compartments, and a different feed placed in 
each, in order to see which the pigs preferred. The results were 
as follows : — 

31 store pigs, weighing from 6 to 8 stone each, live weight, 
ate in 7 days : — 



Mixed meal (maize, wheat, and barley, ground 
together in equal proportions) 




49 stone. 


Rice meal 


22 „ 


Fish meal 


8 „ 


Palm kernel cake 


5 „ 


Whole peas (soaked) 


10 „ 


Whole maize 


4 „. 



Average, 6 lb. per pig per day. 
Nutritive ratio, albuminoids to carbohydrates, 4'*7. 



( 




^IG. 1.— Cross Section of Feeder in Sty. Fig. 2,— Cross Section of Feeder shown 

A. — Iron railing dividing the sties. in Fig. 8. 

B. — Galvanised iron sheeting. 

C. — Tongued and grooved board ends. 




Fig. Dry ^leal Self-Feeders in use. 



1922.] 



Dry-Meal Hoppers for Pigs. 



817 



It will be noticed that the pigs rationed themselves very well, 
but that they were not keen on palm kernel cake. The hoppers 
were always kept full, except those containing whole soaked peas 
and maize, as the pigs ate these as quickly as the}^ were put in. 
Thev were therefore discontinued after two davs. 

The pigs obviously ate too much at first, but as they got used 
to self -feeding the consumption dropped, and after a short time 
they were only averaging 4| lb. per pig per day. 

On various occasions the amount of meal consumed by bunches 
of pigs has been weighed before being put into the hoppers, 
with the following results : — 

No. of stores. Average live Meal jjer pig Period of 

vjeight per dag. weighing meal, 

stones. lb. 

35 9 4-7 3 weeks. 

20 9 4-8 1 

20 9 4-75 2 „ 

15 8 4-8 1 

17 6 4-1 2 „ 

18 6 4-2 3 „ 

Before dry feeding was adopted, the pigs were allowed a ration 
of 4^^ lb. per day, and as much green stuff and roots as they 
would eat. The all-round improvement in their condition after 
being dry fed for some weeks was very marked, particularly 
among the smaller pigs, which now got all the meal they wanted, 
and were not thrust aside by the larger ones. 

Fattening Experiment. — An experiment was then carried out 
in the fattening pens, where there were facilities for weighing 
the pigs. A bunch of 12 stores was divided as nearly as possible 
into two equal lots ; one lot w^as dry fed, and the other lot slop 
fed three times a day, with as much food as they would clear up. 
The period of the experiment was six w^3eks and the following 
were the results : — 

6 j^igs on wet food. 6 pt^gs on dry food. 

Original weight ... 51 stone 4 lb. ... 51 stone 1 lb. 

Final weight 78 .. 1 ., ... 87 11 

Meal consumed ... IIG „ ... 151 „ 

Meal consumed per lb. 

live weight gained... 4*4 lb. ... ... 4*1 lb. 

Average daily gain per 

pig ... ' l^lb 2 1b. 

The stores had been used to slop feed when the test began. 

This test was enough to show that, taking into consideration 
the great saving in labour, dry feeding was likely to be a paying 
proposition, and double dry feeders were installed in every other 

D 



818 



Dry-Meal Hoppers for Pigs. 



[Dec. 



partition between the sties. These were roughly constructed 
as shown in the cross section, the sides of the hopper being made 
of flat galvanized iron. The length is 3 ft., which is found to 
be ample for two pigs to feed simultaneously on either side. 

Sows and Litters. — Dry feeders were now tried with great 
Fuccess for the sows and litters, and the result has been that the 
sows milk beUer, the httle pigs never suffer from scour, and 
there are no difficulties at weaning time, as they start eating the 
ary meal, which is always sweet, and carry straight on with it 
after weaning without the usual set-back. 

Stores. — For a month after weaning the stores are dry fed in 
orchards, and several advantages are noticeable, the most impor- 
tant of which is that no matter how many are run together, they 
all get an equal chance. After this stage they are usually folded 
on vetches, kale or roots, and are not dry fed, but have 
soaked whole maize and beans thrown to them, in order to make 
them live chiefly on the green food. At about 9 stone live weight 
they go to the fattening sties, where they are again put on dry 
food, and a constant supply of green stuff o)' roots, which is most 
important. Of course the pigs must always have w^ater, and a 
very interesting point is that the amount of water consumed in 
the fattening pens is now only half of what it was under the slop 
system of feeding. 

In-Pig Sows. — An experiment has been made with success 
in dry feeding the, in-pig sows. It was found that by feeding 
only palm kernel cake and fish meal, neither of which is very 
palatable, with green stuff, the sows did not get too fat, but kept 
in nice breeding condition, only consuming labout 5 lb. of meal 
per head per day. 

As this is purely a commercial farm, there has not been time 
or opportunity for a number of interesting experiments which 
might have been carried out, but the main result of dry feeding 
has been that the average age of the bacon pig has been reduced 
from 9 months to 7 months and a substantial saving in meal and 
a great saving in labour have been effected. 

For outside use it was found that a door over the food troughs 
was necessary, in order to prevent the meal from being blown 
away, and to keep out birds and vermin. At first a vertical 
swing door that pushed inwards was adopted, but it was found 
that the pig usually took a mouthful of meal, withdrew its head 
to chew it, and dropped a certain amount on the ground. Lift-up 
fl.ap doors w^ere then adopted with great success. The pig has 



1922.] Crate-Kod and Barrel-Hoop Trades. 819 



to nose up the door, which rests on its head, and does not with- 
draw until it has finished feeding, thus entirely eliminating 
waste. 

One difficulty with self -feeding is the cost of the feeders, most 
of those on the market costing over £10 apiece. The one shown 
in the photograph was home made, but farmers who have no 
facilities for making them may purchase well-made feeders to 
take four pigs at a time for the very reasonable sum of 
£2 19s. 6d. each. 

There is little doubt that self-feeding pigs has come to stay, 
as by this method the pig is correctly fed, little and often, all 
pigs get the same opportunity, and there is a large saving in 
the labour bill ; also the difficulty of correctly rationing the pigs 
is eliminated with the self-choice system, as the pigs ration 
themselves. 

* * * * * 

THE CRATE--ROD AND BARREL-HOOP 

TRADES. 

Katharine S. Woods, 
Agricultural Economics Institute, Oxjord. 

Lack of Intercourse between Producer and Consumer. — 

Crates and barrels are in constant use for packing pottery, jam, 
fish, bottles and many kinds of " dry goods," and in the south 
of England are many acres of hazel whence rods and hoops can 
be obtained. The Potteries of Staffordshire form one of the 
important markets for crate-wood and barrel-hoops. The trade 
probably survives spasmodically in most of the districts where 
plenty of hazel can be found. But one suspects that many oppor- 
tunities are wasted through lack of knowledge concerning mutual 
requirements, and that with a better understanding at either 
end the trade might be stabilised and greatly improved. Wood- 
craftsmen and estate agents know little of the exact require- 
ments of the trade or the press (u^e of foreign competition 
and the reasons for it ; the coopers and crate-makers and potters 
of Staffordshire know little of the woodland districts and the 
conditions under which the wood is grown and worked. For 
example, the owner of certain osier-beds which had not been cut 
for four years wanted to sell the rods to a crate-maker. Unfor- 
tunately he cut them too late in the season ; willow crate rods are 
•used while green, but are not worth stacking for later use. 

D 2 



820 



Ceate-Rod and Barrel-Hoop Trades. 



[Dec, 



iT.herefore the rods remained unsold. Another example is seen 
in the statement made in Cornwall that French hazel hoops are 
better than English, being more " suent." On inquiry in the 
Pottery towns it was learnt that French hoops are cut at shorter 
intervals, and are therefore more suitable than EngHsh ones for 
small j&sh-barrels, but no use at all for the big pottery " tubs " 
used in Staffordshire. Closer contact with the market would 
enable estate agents or the estate woodmen to cut at the right 
periods for the most convenient market, and would induce them 
to devote more care to those wouds that are favoured by soil, 
aspect and situation for producing what is required. If a manu- 
facturer can save his labour costs by getting better material, it 
is worth his while to give a better price. 

Casual Growth of Trade Connections. — The following story 
will illustrate the casual way in which trade connections grow up, 
and explains the tenacity with which they are kept up once they 
are made, and the sudden collapse that may occur in a small 
industry if a trade connection is broken through death or from 
some other clause. 

A crate-maker in the Potteries who was setting up in business 
applied to the local goods station for a list of firms from whom 
crate-rods and barrel-hoops had been received. He wrote to the 
man whose name happened to come at the head of the list, and 
has dealt with him ever since. On getting an inquiry for crate- 
rods, this man, who lived near Basingstoke, replied that he was 
willing to send them but wanted to know how he would get the 
money. Whereat the crate-maker promptly sent him a cheque 
for £'50, and told him it would be " quite all right ; you have 
only to take it to one of the local tradesmen and ask him to cash 
it for you, and send along the stuff as soon as it is ready." This 
confidence was not abused, the consignment of wood arrived in 
due course and cheques and crate-rods continued to be exchanged 
periodically. Curiosity at length caused the dealer to visit the 
unknown but open-handed crate -maker who was making his for- 
tune. He returned with much information concerning the trade 
and general conditions in the Pottery Towns that could not fail 
to be of use to him, and with the idea, quite new to the small- 
holders and farmers of the Hampshire woodlands, that such 
information could be freely passed about amongst rival crate - 
makers and coopers. In the south," said the crate-maker, 
** the less you say the more they think of you. Here we are 
very free." 



1922.] Crate-Rod and Barrel-Hoop Trades. 821 



Barrel-Hoop and Crate-Rod Making in Hampshire. — The 

woodland industries of Hampshire and Berkshire, with the local 
system of ownership, cultivation and dealing, have been 
described elsewhere.* Barrel-hoop shaving and crate-rod cutting 
are branches of the woodman's art, rather than separate trades. 
Crate-rods are of several sizes and are sold in bundles known as 
* * seventy-fives , " * ' forties , ' ' and ' ' twenties . " f For barrel-hoops 
rather stouter hazel wands are split with a blunt tool to two or 
three or four bands and shaved on the inner surface so that they 
lie flat against the barrel. The bark forms the rounded outer 
surface. The wood is cut to the various lengths required by 
means of a simple measuring apparatus, consisting of a row of 
stakes driven into the ground at the correct intervals. Barrel- 
hoops differ from 2J ft. to 15 ft. in length. The Hampshire 
names for the hoops are daughters," 2^r ft.; short pink," 
5 ft.; long pink," 6 ft.; " firkin," 7 ft.; " kiliken," 8 ft. 
Nine feet, ten feet, and all the intermediate half-sizes have no 
other name, but eleven feet is short pipe " ; twelve feet " long 
pipe"; thirteen feet "middling," and fourteen feet "swinger." 
It is said to take about a month to learn the work so as to do it 
at a remunerative pace, and it would be a valuable occupation 
for a woodman which might keep him busy the whole winter. 

It is not surprising that potters and coopers prefer to trade with 
some known dealer rather than with the " little farmers," as they 
call the rural wood dealers, who are sometimes uneducated and 
illiterate. Talking of unreliable deliveries, a crate-maker said, "I 
am not particular if there's a bundle or two short, but if it goes 
on every time, I get up against something." The unreliability 
is not only on the side of the woodlanders. Fluctuations which 
have made the trade so risky for the woodlanders and local 
dealers have sometimes been due to bankruptcy or to dishonour- 
able practices amongst crate-makers. Consignments have been 
ordered in advance and when the time has come for payment, 
excuses have been made that the material was faulty; or the 
vendor has been recommended to sell his stock to some other 
crate-maker because the man who ordered it no longer requires 
it ; or the purchaser, having resold the consignment at a profit, 
has disappeared without paying for it. Even if such cases are 
rare, there have been enough to shake the confidence of men 
far away with no knowledge of business, who could get no 

* The Rural Industries Round Oxford, pp. 79-102. 

f The prices quoted in the spring of 1921 were 2s., Is, 9d. and Is. 6d. 
respectively. 



822 



Crate-Rod and Barrel-TIoop Trades. 



[Dec, 



guarantee of good faith, and they are not soon forgotten. For- 
tunately, organisation is extending to the Staffordshire erate- 
makers and coopers, and in their own interests they are anxious - 
lo put an end to such practices. A wood dealer if onlv he 
knew it. can now refer to the Secretary of the Crate-Makers' 
and Coopers' Association, 33, Albion Street, Hanley, Staffs., 
with inquiries as to the reputation of any cooper or crate -maker 
who wishes to buy from him. 

Coiling of Barrel-Hoops. — Barrel-hoops are tied into straight 
bundles of fifty, sorted according to size, and are usually 
despatched thus from the Basingstoke district. Nevertheless, 
coopers and potters prefer to get them ready coiled, even though 
freights are a little higher owing to the greater space required 
for coiled hoops in transit Coiling used to be done at Alder- 
maston but it died out before the War and has only recently 
been resumed. Meanwhile the rods were sent to London to be 
coiled by London coopers, who apparently had big coiling plants. 
Basingstoke barrel-hoops and crate-rods are known in Stafford- 
shire and elsewhere as " Ijondon " rods or hoops, no doubt 
owing to the enterprise of some London cooper who bought them 
from the country and distributed them. It seems wasteful for 
such cheap goods as barrel-hoops to bear the double transport 
expenses incurred in sending them to London to be coiled and 
then to the Potteries or to some other market, and except for 
the London market it would appear to be more economical to 
coil them at the source. A hiix Staffordshire firm of coopers set 
up a coiling plant during the War because it was unable to pro- 
cure coiled hoops, and had big packing contracts. After the 
War the plant was sold, since even in this big cooperage there 
was not enough work to keep the plant busy for more th.^n about 
one day in the week, so the capital was lying idle. Coiling can 
easily be done by a very simple apparatus while the wood is 
green, and when dry the wood can be soaked and coiled inside a 
cylinder to dry, so that it keeps its shane after removal and can 
easily be held in position while the cooper fastens it to the barrel. 
If a large trade were to be organised frcm one of the railway 
stations such as Aldermaston or Alton whence wood is 
despatched, coiling machinery mJght pay. and it is quite pos- 
sible tha^ the difficulty is merely that rf collecting si^fficient 
capital to buy up local barrel-hoops in large quantities. Many 
difficulties might be solved by passin.Q- all the local crate and 
barrel-hoop wood through the hands of a local coiling, packing 



1922.] Crate-Kod and Barrel-Hoop Trades. 823 



and distributing firm, and the increasing organisation at the 
market end of the trade should tend to make such a venture safer 
than it could otherwise be. 

Stacking Barrel-Hoops and Crate-Rods. — Small consign- 
ments of hazel barrel-hoops and crate-rods are wanted during the 
winter months for current use while green. Workmen prefer to 
use them green while they are easy to bend and twist. The bulk 
of the wood, however, is sent off in the spring for stacking. If 
properly stacked it is said to keep in good condition for two years. 
The stacking is important, for if there should be a slump in the 
pottery trade and consequently in crate-rods, a wood dealer may 
incur very heavy losses through deterioration by keeping his 
stock a whole year. A piece of bark is stripped off the whole 
length of the wood for barrel-hoops to prevent rotting. Crate- 
rods, which are finer, are merely stacked when dry, the butt 
ends outwards, and protected from the wet with a thatch of twigs. 
The larger wood for " crate heads." is " scotched," i.e., a patch 
of bark removed. 

By April or May the wood has become dryer and lighter, and 
consequently freights are lower. In January, 1921, when the 
wood was wet and heavy, a load of crate-wood from Alton, 
Hampshire, weighing 3 tons 13 cwt., cost as much as £7 4s. lOd. 
in carriage, whereas in May two loads from Aldermaston in 
Berkshire travelled for £5 18s. 8d. and £2 2s. 5d. respectively. 
From Market Drayton in Staffordshire a load costing ^£5 was 
procured at a cost of only 10s. in carnage. 

Crate-Making, Importance of Good Material. — Crate-making 
has not even yet entirely died out as a rural industry in Stafford- 
shire, though the bulk of the industry has come to the towns, 
not only because made-up crates are bulky and inconvenient to 
take in from the country, but for other reasons. A master 
explained: — " It is education; the men found that they could 
come into the towns and get the best material to work on, and 
earn more money. They won't moil themselves over work when 
they see others getting more pay for less work! " Crate-making 
shares with other trades the reputation amongst its workers of 
being the " m.ost down-trodden trade in existence." In the 
country in Staffordshire the earnings were only about fifteen 
shillings a week, and probably more precarious than the agri- 
cultural wages. 

A master crate-maker who had In'mself been a workman laid 
great stress on the importance of getting the exact sizes, shapes, 



824 



Crate-Rod and Barrel-Hoop Trades. 



[Dec, 



and kinds of material. The poles for crate-heads, which are the 
stout pieces forming the corner uprights of the crate, should 
either be only thick enough for one, or just thick enough for 
two, crate-heads. If thicker, too much labour is involved in 
splitting them w]^. They should be straight enough for straight 
lengths of three or four feet to be cut from them, but need not 
be so straight as for turnery, since these would probably be 
dearer. As to the kind of wood for the crate-heads the crate- 
maker was indifferent, though he did not much care for fir on 
account of its knots. 

Dutch Competition in the Barrel-Hoop Trade. — Bad trade in 
the woodland districts is laid at the door of foreign competition. 
It is true that Dutch willow hoops have been coming to the 
potteries at about a quarter of the price of the English hazel 
hoops. One firm of coopers estimated that only 30 per cent, of 
its barrels could have English hoops at the current prices 
(August, 1921). These would be put on the best and biggest 
barrels, on which the extra price could be charged. Competition 
from Holland is due to the fact that the dykes are planted with 
willows which help to hold them up : the sale of the rods is of 
secondary importance to the safety from floods. The Dutch 
hoops are cheaper because they can't help growing them," said 
one of the coopers. The greater increase of overland freights 
in England as compared with water transport has made 
Dutch competition especially severe since the War. For 
example, in the spring of 1921 a bundle of English 6-ft. barrel- 
hoops from Sussex cost 4s. 3d., including Is. for carriage, and 
a bundle of Dutch hoops cost only Is OJd. including 7d. 
carriage. In consequence, although the English hazel hoops are 
far superior to the Dutch willow hoops, coopers can only use them 
on the best and most expensive barrels. Som.etimes a barrel has 
a couple of English hoops as well as the Dutch ones, to give extra 
strength. Hazel hoops are stronger and more durable than 
willow, and will stand storing when dry. Willow is only suitable 
for use while green. Thus it is seen that foreign competition, 
severely as it hits the English hazel barrel-hoop trade, yet leaves 
room for a certain proportion of English goods owing to their 
superior quality. The proportion will vary according to the 
condition of trade in the pottery and other dry-goods trades 
using barrels for packing. 

Relative Demand for Barrel-Hoops and Crate-Rods. — The 

market for English barrel-hoops and crate-rods might be im- 



1922.] CivATE-PiOD AND Barrel.-Hoop Teades. 825 



proved if freights could be reduced. Pottery for export is packed 
in " tubs " or barrels, except for big ware which is packed in 
crates. For the home trade only about one-fifth to one-sixth of 
the ware is packed in barrels, and the rest in crates. There has 
been much pilfering from crates at the ports and therefore com- 
panies have refused to insure small pottery unless it is packed 
for export in enclosed packages. The two crafts of crate-rod 
cutting and barrel-hoop shaving are branches of the woodman's 
art rather than separate industries, since the material for either 
can be found in the same woods, the same woodman can prepare 
both with a little experience, and the destination is the same 
for both. There is no direct foreign competition in the crate- 
wood trade, therefore it would be well, at times when foreign 
competition hits the barrel-hoop trade, to be able to turn to the 
other trade. 

The crate-makers affirm that pottery manufacturers will only 
make their own crates if they can get plenty of cheap material 
and do it at a low cost. To protect their trade, the crate-makers 
must be sure of getting the material, and an interesting sug- 
gestion was made, emanating, it must be admitted, from a firm 
of coopers, not crate-makers. This was to keep up the price of 
crate-wood, which is the staple trade and does not «ui¥er from 
foreign competition, and to lower the price of barrel-hoops so 
that there should be less disparity between the English and 
Dutch prices. The suggestion is quite in accordance with rural 
practice in regard to various wood products, especially where 
there are mixed woods. For example: — "We can't make a 
profit on firewood alone, it doesn't pay for the cutting; so we 
make up on turnery poles which fetch a good price if grown 
straight." When we did a big trade in hop-poles, there was a 
lot of work in the woods, and it paid men to make barrel-hoops 
and crate-rods and hurdles." It may be, therefore, that 
organisation for protective purposes among the Master Crate- 
Makers and Coopers, may have a good influence on the conditions 
among the woodlanders. If there were some corresponding local 
organisation through which the interests of the landowners, 
woodland craftsmen, and local dealers could be expressed, much 
might be done to stabiHse the uncertain and spasmodic woodland 
industries. 

Conclusion. — It is useless to expect any appreciable improve- 
ment in the position of the English woodlanders unless market 
conditions are watched, not only by the dealers who buy up coppice- 
wood, but by the estate agents or landowners who are responsible 



826 



Seeds a^b Good Crops. 



[Dec, 



for lookiDg after the woods, can choose which coppices are worth 
regukr attention in the matter of draining, clearing and replac- 
ing dead stocks, and decide at what interval each coppice should 
be cut. The crate -rod and barrel-hoop trade shows need of atten- 
tion to the supplies of wood, and it gives one illustration among 
many, of the need for an Intelligence Bureau to which all who 
are interested in woodland industries can contribute, and apply 
for information. Such information cannot be made .available 
to the local people most concerned unless there is a local 
organisation to correspond. 

* * * * * * 

SEEDS AND GOOD CROPS. 

Leslie E. Cook, N.D.A., 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 

The first essential towards the production of a first-class crop 
is to use only first-class seed. Such a description involves : — 

(a) Variety best suited to the land. 

(b) Good strain. 

(c) High purity. 

(d) Good germination. 

(e) Suitable country of origin. 

Variety. — Experience will be the most useful guide as 
regards variety, and here the seedsman may be able to help, 
for he has opportunities of observing the different classes of seed 
growing on various soils and of comparing the resulting crops 
and yields. The County Agricultural Organiser should be able 
to give some information on variety trials in the county. Experi- 
ments can also be tried by growing two or three varieties in the 
same field and carefully watching the results. 

Good strain is of great importance in cereals and roots, as 
these crops are liable to get very impure and poor after a few 
years. Great trouble is taken by the big seed growers to keep 
pure strong stocks of their seeds ; inspection and rogueing of 
growing crops is rigorously carried out ; -and the resulting seed 
is cleaned very carefully — all small and immature seed being 
eliminated. This labour adds considerably to the cost of the 
seed, but it will add much more to the resulting yield, and in 
the case of cereals to the value of the grain when marketed. . The 
cost of the seed is not a big item, in the cost of raising a crop, 
and a few shillings more per acre will usually be well repaid by 
an increased crop. This has been demonstrated repeatedly by 



1922.] 



Seeds and Good Crops. 



827 



experiments. The purchase of seed from rehable merchants is 
the safest plan. 

Purity means freedom from other crop seeds, weed seeds, 
broken seeds, dirt, etc. This is of great importance, and only 
seed of the very highest purity should be used. The Seeds Act, 
1920, provides that sellers of the most important agricultural 
seeds shall always declare the purity of these seeds : in the case 
of vegetable and root seed a standard of purity has been fixed 
(97 per cent.), but in the case of grasses and clovers the actual 
figure must be stated. When purchasing seed farmers should 
demand to know the purity. Two other points are provided for 
by the Seeds Act : — (1) the presence of certain weed seeds, 
described as injurious weed seeds, if in excess of 1 per cent, 
in clovers or 2 per cent, in grasses, must always be declared. 
The scheduled injurious weeds are docks, sorrel, soft cranesbill, 
cut-leaved cranesbill,- soft brome grass, Yorkshire fog, and wild 
carrot. (2) The presence of dodder, which must be declared if 
in excess of one seed in a 4-oz. sample. Dodder is a parasitic 
plant which lives on clover and very speedily destroys any clover 
plant that it attacks. 

Good Germination. — A high percentage of germination is 
very desirable. It is unreasonable to suggest that if the per- 
centage of germination is only 50 per cent, twice as much seed 
may be sown. This plan is very costly, while a low germination 
frequently indicates poor vitality, which will enable weeds to 
establish themselves before the crop. This will very much 
weaken, if not entirely destroy it. 

By the Seeds Act the seller is required to state the actual 
percentage of germination, or where a standard is fixed, a state- 
ment that the seed is above the authorised minimum percentage 
is sufficient, provided that the authorised minimum figure be 
stated. 

Country of Origin. — This is especially of importance in the 
case of clover seed, which is imported into this country from 
numerous places — France. America, Canada, Chili, Silesia, New 
Zealand. 

Good English seed is usually insufficient to meet actual require- 
ments and is dearer than other seed. It is the most suitable to 
use in almost all parts of England. Foreign seed often looks a 
better sample than Enghsh, and may have a somewhat higher 
percentage of germination, and the price being lower it seems an 
attractive purchase, but in the Enghsh climate a better plant will 



828 



Bpring-Taii-s Attacking Mangolds. 



[Dec, 



usually be obtained from English seed. Care should be taken to 
observe that the country of origin is stated when buying clovers 
and grasses, as is required by the Seeds Act. In short, to 
obtain the best chance of a good crop, three factors bearing on 
the seed used must be borne in mind : — 

(1) Experiments made by the farmer himself, or by others, 
must be studied to determine the most suitable variety. 

(2) Only seedsmen on whom one can rely should be dealt 
with. 

(3) The analysis required by the Seeds Act should be read 
and the information it gives should be used. 

Farmers might usefully have seeds tested at the Official Seed 
Testing Station, before sowing. Particulars as to size of sample, 
\\here to send it and fees for testing, may be obtained from the 
Chief Officer, Official Seed Testing Station, Huntingdon Koad, 
Cambridge. Full details of the Seeds Act may be obtained by 
purchasing the Seeds Act, 1920, and the Seeds Eegulations, 
1922, price Bd. each, from any newsagent. Special facilities are 
provided for the testing of seeds for farmers when the analysis 
is required solely for the farmers' own information, and not in 
connection with a sale of seeds. The fee charged in this case 
is the nominal one of 6d. per sample. 

* * * ^ * * 

SPRING-TAILS ATTACKING 
MANGOLDS. 

From the Ministry's Pathological Laboratory , 
Harpenden, Herts. 

Amongst the various types o£ diseased and damaged mangolds 
submitted during the current season to the Ministry's Patho- 
logical Laboratory for diagnosis, there was one affecting seedling 
plants that calls for special mention, as, though not uncommon 
in previous years, it has not been certainly attributed to any 
definite cause. 

The injury to the young plant would give the impression that 
the root had been constricted at the soil level, just below the 
crown, the crown itself and the remaining root below ground 
being of more or less normal development. This apparent con- 
striction frequently increases in intensity until the affected 
portion becomes threadhke, and in the process of singling or 



1922.] 



Spring-Tails Attacking Mangolds. 



829 



during a high wind the top portion of the plant becomes sepa- 
rated from the lower. 

To avoid confusion it is also necessary to mention a not 
dissimilar type of damage where the root heloiv ground becomes 
threadlike, the portion above remaining intact. The cause of 
this damage is well known, however, being due to the attack 
of a minute beetle, Atomaria linearis. 

As a result of an investigation in a field of attacked plants 
exhibiting the type of damage first mentioned — a threadlike 
condition of the root above ground — very large numbers of a 
minute Spring-tail (Collemhola) were found to be present upon 
the plants and surrounding soil, while many of the insects were 
seen to be feeding upon the mangolds at the affected parts and 
causing quite a conspicuous bleeding. 

Collemhola are primitive insects without wings, and the par- 
ticular members of the Order {Bourletiella hortensis, Fitch = 
pruinosus, Tulb.) in question are very small slate -coloured 
globular creatures capable of leaping considerable distances. 
They immediately scatter when the plants are approached. This, 
in conjunction with their small size, probably accounts for their 
not having been hitherto associated (according to the literature 
so far consulted) with the particular form of damage done, as no 
plant on being handled for examination would reveal a specimen. 

It should be added that, although it is extremely probable that 
these insects are the first and only cause of the threadlike con- 
dition of young mangold plants above ground, this has not been 
definitely proved. These observations are made rather as giving 
a possible clue and to promote further investigation by those 
interested, than to suggest that a final settlement of the problem 
has been arrived at. 

Bourletiella {Smynthurus) hortensis has previously been 
reported as injuring various crops, including mangolds, in this 
country and abroad, but does not appear to have been associated 
with the particular form of damage under consideration. 

As the insects never feed on a root below ground level, it is 
probable that, when feasible, earthing up the seedling plants so 
that no roots are exposed would tend to ward off an attack. It 
is noteworthy that varieties of mangolds are susceptible according 
to the amount of exposed root exhibited above ground in the early 
stages of growth, which appeared on the fields examined to be a 
characteristic of yellow rather than red mangolds. 

Mft * * * * * 



830 



Liquorice Groavinc. 



[Dec, 



LIQUORICE GROWING. 

David G. McIver, 
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. 

The Liquorice plant, Ghjcyrrhiza glabra, is a native of North 
Africa, Southern Europe, and Asia Minor, and is cultivated in 
France, Italy, Spain, Southern Eussia and the United States, 
&nd to a slight extent in England. The plant is grown for its 
root, from which is obtained the liquorice of commerce, chiefly 
used in medicinal preparations, and also in brev/ing and flavour- 
ing tobacco. In England the home-grown root is almost entirely 
used for chewing purposes. The cultivation of liquorice in this 
country is now confined to the distnct between Pontefract and 
Knotting] ey in Yorkshire, although a few years back there were 
two or three centres near liOndon where it was grown. 

The liquorice has been grown in the Pontefract district for 
several generations, and there is no doubt that the Pomfret Cakes 
which are made in the district, and which are a liquorice pre- 
paration, were originally made from the home-grown root. The 
Pomfret Cakes of to-day are probably made from the imported 
article. The Yorkshire -grown liquorice, as already stated, is 
practically all sold for chewing purposes and is chiefly consumed 
in the Northern towns, such as Newcastle, Hull, Leeds and Man- 
chester. It has a very definite selling season — the months of 
October and November — and any ro(^ts not sold by the beginning 
of December are stored in sand until the following season. 

The acreage under the crop is gradually diminishing and 
whereas a few years back there was an acreage of about 200, 
only a quarter of that area is cultivated now. A deep medium 
soil, such as is found between Pontefract and Knottingley, is 
essential for its cultivation as it is impossible to get roots up to 
4 ft. in length, and more sometimes, unless the soil has a good 
depth. 

The plants rem^ain in the beds as a rule for four years, 
although occasionally they are lifted in the third, and sometimes 
when they have done badly or the market is flat they may be 
left for five years. 

The system of cultivation practised in the Yorkshire district 
is as follows : — 

Little preparation of the ground is necessary because it is 
usual for one liquorice crop to follow another and as the process 



19-22.] 



Liquorice Growing. 



8B1 



of lifting the roots entails the moving of the soil to a depth of 
three to four feet it can be readily seen that the ground will be 
left in a well tilled condition for the next crop. 

The soil before planting as a rule receives a dressing of 
between 30 and 40 tons of manure per acre. Planting takes place 
•during the end of March and early April, the land having pre- 
viously been worked into flattened ridges about 8 J ft. apart 
and 4 in. high. Two rows of sets are planted on each ridge, 
the sets being placed singly 8 in. to 12 in. apart. Planting is 
done with a dibble. The sets consist of runners which resemble 
very much the underground stems of the perennial Sunflower, 
and the crowns of the old plants which have been taken up the 
previous season. The runner and the crown sets are usually 
planted alternately, and then covered to a depth of 1 in. to 2 in. 
with soil. 

A wet time after planting usually results in many of the sets 
rotting and failing to grow, the best results being obtained if the 
weather continues dry for the first 3 or 4 weeks after planting. 

During the season the plants require no attention except 
keeping free from weeds and cutting down the old stems in the 
autumn or winter. For the first two years the land is cropped 
between the ridges with early potatoes, cauliflowers, carrots and 
other kinds of vegetables. The fourth year the plants are usually 
lifted, this taking place during October and November. The 
labour bill in lifting is a heavy item, rarely less than £60 an 
acre. 

Trenches have to be dug 3 to 4 ft. deep along the sides of the 
rows so that the entire root may be obtained. When removed 
they are trimmed of the small roots and runners, the crowns 
removed for future planting, and the roots tied into bundles 
weighing 3i lb. each. These are collected and made into bales 
weighing 1 cwt., and in this condition they are sent to the 
different markets. The crowns are sorted over, the old or 
original crown that was planted being cut away, and these 
together with the small roots are known as offal, and are sent to 
manufacturing chemists and made into various liquorice prepara- 
tions. The young crowns together with the runners are retained 
for plantinfT the next season. The price of the liquorice root 
varies considerably. At £5 or even £6 per cwt. it is said to 
yield no profit. A fair price is considered about £8. but during 
the War much higher prices were realised. For the offal only 
about 8s. a cwt. is obtained. The weight of baled root obtained 
per acre is about 2 tons, and of the offal onlv a few cwt. 



832 



Working of the Seeds Act, 1920. 



[Dec, 



It may appear that at £7 to £S per cwt. liquorice growing is 
a very profitable crop, but against this must be set the high cost 
of planting, tlie interval of four years before any returns are 
obtained, except from the intercropped vegetable crops the first 
two years, and the heavy expenses of lifting and trimming the 
roots. And another point is that there is only a limited demand 
and this appears to be getting less and less each year. 

The question of growing the liquorice root for extraction of the 
liquorice of commerce, of which thousands of tons ^are annually 
imported, has sometimes been raised, but when it is pointed out 
that imported liquorice, not the root, is on offer at present at £5 
a cwt., it will be seen that it is impossible for the English grower 
to compete since he grows at a loss when he obtains that price 
for the root. The difference can be better realised when it is 
stated that 1 cwt. of the root only yields 80 lb. of liquorice. 

****** 

THE FIRST YEAR'S WORKING OF 
THE SEEDS ACT, 1920. 

II. 

Seed Potatoes. — One of the new features of the Seeds Kegu- 
lations, 1921, was that in the case of a sale or exposure for sale 
of seed potatoes, a statement had to be delivered to the pur- 
chaser (or exhibited alongside the potatoes when exposed for 
sale) containing particulars as to the class, variety, size and 
dressing of the potatoes. As regards the statement of variety, 
it was laid down that this should not be taken to be incorrectly 
stated if it were true of 97 per cent, of the total quantity sold 
or exposed for sale, or, in other words, that an error of 3 per 
cent, would be allowed. On representations being made by the 
seed potato trade that it was impossible, during the first year 
that the Eegulations were in operation, to limit the possible 
error to 8 per cent., the Ministry issued a General Licence 
authorising the standard of purity to be reduced to 95 per cent, 
for the 1921-22 season only. In the amended Seeds Eegula- 
tions, 1922, the sale of a quantity of seed potatoes of less than 
97 per cent, purity is authorised provided they are declared to 
be of mixed varieties." 

The sale of seed potatoes is similar to that of packeted seed, 
inasmuch as it is to a large extent undertaken during a few 
weeks only in the year by a number of persons whose 
ordinary business has no connection whatever with the seed or 



1922.] 



Working of the Seeds Act, 1.920. 



833 



nursery trades. This fact makes it very difficult for the Ministry 
to bring to the notice of the various sellers their responsibilities 
under the Act, and still more difficult to detect evasions. A large 
number of establishments have, however, been visited, and the 
usual explanations and warnings given. These visits, combined 
with propaganda work which the Ministry is undertaking in order 
to make known the requirements of the Seeds Act, have already 
had verv satisfactorv results. 

The principal errors made by vendors of seed potatoes have 
been as regards the " size and dressing." This term is 
described in the Eegulations as meaning " the size of the mesh 
(exclusive of the thickness of the wire) of the riddles through and 
by which, respectively, the potatoes may be passed and 
retained." The Eegulations concede in the case of seed 
potatoes sold " as gi'own " that the size of the mesh of the top 
riddle need not be stated. There have been a large number of 
cases in which a substantial proportion of the potatoes were much 
too large to pass through a mesh of the size declared. 

Farmer to Farmer Sales. — One of the greatest difficulties in 
connection with the administration of the Act is to bring home 
to farmers theii- responsibilities when selling seeds to other 
farmers. When selling seed corn or any of the scheduled kinds 
of seeds intended for sowing, such as red clover, tares, etc., 
they are in precisely the same position as the seedsman, and are 
bound to supply the same guarantee. Thus a farmer selling a 
sack of home-gi'own clover seed to a neighbour for sowing 
should, in the first place, have a sample tested at an Official 
Seed Testing Station, and supply the buyer with a copy of the 
result not later than the date on which the seed is delivered. 

Various methods have been adopted to bring to the notice of 
the farmer the benefits which he derives from the operations of 
the Act when he is a buyer of seeds, and the responsibilities 
which are his when he is a seller. With the welcome assistance 
of the National Farmers' Union and other farmers' organisa- 
tions, a large number of leaflets have been distributed, para- 
graphs have been inserted in the country newspapers from time 
to time, and the co-operation of the local Agi'icultural Education 
Authorities and the Agricultural Colleges has been enlisted. In 
referring to the number of farmers' samples sent for testing to 
the Official Seed Testing Station, the Chief Officer of the Station 
in his report for the season 1920-21 says: — "In any county 
the number of farmers using the Station appears to be in direct 

B 



834 Working of the Seeds Act, 1920. [Dec. 



proportion to the activities in this connection of the County Agri- 
cultural Organiser." 

One of the mcsst hopeful pieces of propaganda work in this 
connection during the past season has been the series of lectures 
on the Seeds Act given by the Ministry's inspectors at meetings 
which it was possible to arrange, thanks to various Branches of 
the National Farmers' Union, and the Local Education Authori- 
ties. In Wales the total number of meetings of this kind 
attended by the Ministry's Seeds Inspector was 28, spread over 
eleven different counties. The attendance of farmers at these 
Welsh meetings was approximately two thousand, but as reports 
appeared in most of the county papers circulating amongst the 
farming community, the actual number of farmers reached must 
have been far greater. 

Prosecutions. — Legal proceedings for infringements of the 
Seeds Act have been taken in four cases during the season 
1921-22. 

The first case was heard at Harrogate where a firm of seeds- 
men in the town were charged with making a false statement 
under the Act in respect of a quantity of onion seed. The 
germination of the seed in question was stated to be not less 
than the minimum percentage authorised by the Seeds Eegula- 
tions, 1921, i.e., 60 per cent., whereas the actual germination 
was found on an official test to be only 5 per cent. The Bench 
imposed a fine of £1 Is. and .^3 3s. costs. 

The second case was in respect of a similar charge against a 
seedsman at Knaresborough who exposed parsnip seed for sale 
mth a declaration that the germination was at, or above, the 
authorised minimum, i.e., 45 per cent., but which was shown to 
be only 27 per cent. The Bench inflicted a fine of £1 and £1 Is. 
costs. 

The third case was heard at Abertravennv, and the defendant 
pleaded that the seed which was the subject of the prosecution 
was eld and not intended for sale. The Bench decided that, as 
there was some doubt as to the seeds being exposed for sale, the 
case should be dismissed, but told the defendant that in their 
opinion he was to blame for having such old seed on the pre- 
mises. 

The fourth case was heard at Peterborough, the charge being 
failure to deliver to the purchasers, in the case of two separate 
sales of seed potatoes, the necessary statement as to class, 
variety, size and dressing. A conviction was obtained, and a 



1922.] 



835 



fine of ^1 and costs inflicted in both cases. The costs amounted 
to o610 in the one case and £5 in the other. 

Amendments of Seeds Regulations. — In the light of the 
experience gained since the Seeds Regulations, 1921, came into 
operation on the 1st August, 1921, a number of minor amend- 
ments were recently agreed to by the Ministry in consultation 
with representatives of the various interests concerned. These 
alterations have been incorporated in a new set of Regulations 
entitled the " Seeds Regulations, 1922," which came into opera- 
tion on the 10th August last, superseding the previous Regu- 
lations. 

Apart from amendments of a purely drafting nature, the 
alterations have the effect of : — 

(1) Specifically excluding lawn grass seeds from the requirements of the 

Regulations ; 

(2) Withdrawing the necessity for stating the percentage of pure 

germinating seed or "real value" in the case of grass or clover 
seed ; 

(3) Allowing alsike clover and white clover, when grown together, to be 

treated, for the purposes of the Regulations, as one seed, provided 
they are declared as ha\ ing been grown together ; 

(4) Requiring, for the purpose of testing, the sprouted grains of cereal 

see(1s not to be treated as an luipurity, that is to say they are not to 
be picked out of the sample put up for the germination test ; 

(5) Reducing the authorised mininunu percentages of germination in the 

case of broccoli and cauliflower from 65 to 60; aud 

(6) Autliorisiug the sale of seed potatoes, the variety of which is less than 

the standard purity of 97 per cent., provided they are specifically 
Hescrihed a>^ beitig of nn'xed \ a' ieties. 

Copies of the Seeds Act, 1920. and of the Seeds Regulations, 
1922, may be obtained through anv bookseller, or direct from 
IT.M. Stationery OfiS.ce, Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C., 
price 3d. each. 



* * m * 



E 2 



886 Notes on Manures for December. [Dec.^ 



NOTES ON MANURES FOR DECEMBER. 



Rothamsted Experim€7ital Station, Harpenden, Herts. 

Does Manuring pay? A further Example. — In last month's 
notes the question was raised whether manuring pays, and the 
answer was given that it does when it is properly carried out. 
Assuming that a farmer can grow^ a crop at all at present prices 
he will make more out of a good crop than of a poor one. It is 
quite fallacious to suppose that under-production on British 
farms would help farmers by forcing up prices or in any other 
way; it would simply result in more imports. Nor is there any 
reason why farmers should despair and give up because of the 
difficult times through which they are now passing. Last month 
an instance was given showing that the best return to the farmer 
is obtained when a bold pohcy is adopted and the fertiliser 
dressing is not too stinted. 

This is shown by the following experiment on potatoes carried 
out this season at Kothamsted : — 



As in the cases previously quoted, the double dressing of sulphate 
of ammonia has given more than double the return of the first ; 

cwt. sulphate of ammonia gave an additional crop of IJ tons 
per acre of potatoes, while 3 cwt. gave an additional 3 tons 8 cwt. 
per acre. Now the price of 3 tons vS cwt. of potatoes is 
not yet anything like as low as that of 3 cwt. of sulphate of 
ammonia, even after the cost of lifting, storing, marketing, etc., 
is thrown into the account. 

The experiment illustrates the undoubted truth that, after a 
certain point is reached, further additions of fertiliser do not 
continue to increase the yield of crop at the same rate, although 
the increase may still be profitable. In the present instance a 
further IJ- cwt. sulphate of ammonia (making 4J cwt. in all) 
gave a further increase of 6 cwt. of potatoes per acre over that 
given by 3 cwt. : this is a small but by no means negligible 



Sir John Russell, D.Sc, F.E.S., 



Increase due to each 
Yield per additional 1^ cwt. 
acre. sulphate of a m m onia. 



tons. tons per acre. 



10 tons farmyard manure ; phosphates and 
potash and — 

No nitrogenous manure ... 6*0 

H cwt. sulphate of ammonia 7'5 



1-5 
1-9 
0-3 




192-2.] 



Notes on Manures for December. 



837 



result. Obviously, however, the main elt'ect is produced by the 
11 or 3 cwt. per acre, and further additions of manure might 
well prove to be unprofitable. 

The evidence indicates that there are two distinct sets of 
maximum returns for successive increments of manures : — a 
maximum increment of crop which is given not necessarily, and 
probably not usually, by the first, but by the second or some 
subsequent increment of manure ; and a maximum of profit which 
may be obtained with some prarticular increment of manure. 

Effect of Potassic Fertilisers on Clover. — One of the most 
striking results at Eothamsted this year was the effect of potassic 
fertilisers in increasing the yield of clover in a pure red clover 
ley. The plant to begin with was poor ; it was kept over from the 
19-20 sowing and left to stand after being cut in 1921 because the 
young seeds of that year completely perished in the drought. It 
was sufficiently good to save under the circumstances, but was 
not very vigorous. The results of treating it with fertilisers 
showed that slags of various kinds gave no improvement, but 
potassic fertilisers improved the yield. The results were : — 

clover hay : ciot. per acre. 

Xo added manure ... ... ... ... 17*0 

Basic slag ... ... ... ... ... 17"0 

Sulphate of potash... ... ... ... 23 "2 

an increase of over 6 cwt. of clover hay per acre for an addition 
of 1 cwt. of sulphate of potash. 

Apparent Failure of Basic Slag on Grass Land. — Cases have 
recently been reported in which farmers applied basic slag to 
grass land last winter, but have seen no result. The past season 
was not very favourable to slag, and in the Rothamsted experi- 
ments slag gave very little result. The cold spring was 
unfavourable to growth in many districts, and it was not till 
the end of May that the grass began to make much gi'owth : it 
then came on with a rush. In these circumstances the slag 
does not seem to have exerted its effect, and only one of the 
various samples tested in the field at Eothamsted gave any 
marked increase. 

There are, however, cases where even in good seasons slag 
does not act as well as it might be expected to do. Some of these 
were mentioned in last month's notes : they were cases in which 
lime was needed before the slag could act. Another possibility 
is sugsjested by the clover experiment just mentioned : here slag 
bv itself was without action in increasini>' the gi'owth of clover, 
though potash was effective. It is possible, therefore, that some 



838 



Notes on Manures for December. 



[Dec, 



of the cases of apparent inertness of slag may be due to shortage 
of potash. It has long been known that this happens on hght 
soils, though here the increased yield of hay or of grazing vegeta- 
tion may be too small to justify the expenditure incurred in 
securing it ; but it has not before been suspected that a shortage 
of potash might occur on heavy soils, and this possibility is there- 
fore being tested at Eothamsted during the coming season. 

Does Superphosphate use up the free Lime in a Soil? — A 

correspondent asks the following question : — If a sample of 
superphosphate contains a certain amount of combined lime can 
it be assumed that an equal amount will be withdrawn from the 
reserves in the soil when the supei-phosphate reverts, as it is 
supposed to do, directly it is put on the land? 

The question is difficult to answer because the changes occur- 
ring when superphosphate is added to soil, and again when it is 
taken up by the plant, are very complex and cannot be set out in 
any simple w^ay. Undoubtedly the superphosphate becomes in- 
soluble and to this extent might be expected to combine with and 
therefore withdraw from the soil a certain proportion of its 
basic material including the free lime ; but the amount with- 
drawn is really small, even if one supposed that the whole burden 
falls on the lime. Onlv a fraction of the total lime is involved 
in any case ; much of it is in the form of calcium sulphate which 
does not react with lime ; the active part is the mono-calcium 
phosphate, and the lime with which this can react does not 
amount to more than 5 or 6 per cent, of the weight of the super- 
phosphate, according as the sample is of 26 or 30 per cent, 
strength; in other words, a dressing of 2| cwt. of superphosphate 
would withdraw from the soil less than 15 to 20 lb. of lime per 
acre. It is improbable, however, that all the burden falls on 
the lime in the soil. 

Town Refuse as Manure: further Instances.* — A test of town 
refuse has been made this season at Eothamsted. Three 
plots were laid out on the mangold field : one was given London 
stable manure at the rate of 10 tons per acre, and the other two 
received town refuse sent from Ilampstead by the contractors. 
In addition artificials were supplied at the rate of 3 cwt of super- 
phosphate and a mixture of muriate and sulphate of ammonia 
equivalent to 3 cwt. of sulphate of ammonia. No differences were 
observed between the three plots at any time, and in the end the 
yields of roots were equal within the errors of experiment, there 
being 22 tons per acre on the straw manured plots and 23 tons 

* See this Journal, November, 1922, p. 685. 



1922.] 



Notes on Manures for December. 



839 



on the plots receiving town refuse. The crop is not large and 
the season was not particularly favourable to farmyard manure. 
The result is nevertheless interesting. It still remains to be 
determined whether the effect of town refuse in the second 
and later seasons is equal to that of farmyard manure. 
Some further analyses of town refuse are as follows : — 





Letchtcorih 


Colwyn Bay 




per cent. 


per cent. 


Mineral matter 


41-34 


42-4 


Organic matter 


32-49 


iy-05 


Moisture 


24-14 


38-56 


Nitron-en 


0-33 


0-78 


Phosphoric acid (P^O.,) 


0-33 


1-26 


Equal to Tricalcicphosphate 


0-72 


2-75 


Calcium oxide 




2-42 


Calcium carbonate ... 


G-87 




Oxides of iron and alumina 


7-87 


10-20 



Prices of Artificial Manures. 

Unless otherwise stated, prices are for not less than 2-ton lots f.o.r. in towns 
named, and are net cash for prompt delivery. 



Hrice per ton 



Description 


Bristol 


) 

Hull 


L'pool 


ndn 


( 'ost per 
Unit at 
u on 




£ s. 


£ s. 


€ s. 


£ s. 


s. d. 


JTitrate of Soda (X. 15^ per cent.) 






13. 


13. 7 


17. 3 


Sulphate of Ammonia, ordinary 












(A. 25i per cent.) 


15.10* 


15.10* 


15.10* 


15.10" 


(N)14.U 


neutral 










(A. 35 1 per cent.) 


16.13=' 


16 13^ 


16 13* 


16 13 


(N)15.8 


Kainit (Pot. 12^ per cent.) 






2.12 


2. 7 


3. 10 


French Kainit (Pot 14 t er cent.) 


21 


2. 1 




2.12 


3. it 


Sj'lvinite t,Pot. 2'^ per cent.) 








3. 5 


3 3 


Potash Salts (Pot, 3 ' per cent.) 








5 2 


3. 5 


Muriate of Po'ash (Pot. 50 per cent.) 




10.10 


8.10 


9. 5 


3. 8 


Sulphate of Potash (Pot. 48 per cent.) 




11.15 


12. 


12. 


5. 


Basic Slag (T.P. 30-32 per cent.) 


3 17§ 






4. 2§ 


2. 8 


(T.P. 24-26 per cent.) 




3."l^ 








■ (T.P. 2 -22 per cent.) 


2.15^ 


2.13§ 


•>.15^ 


2.15$ 


2, 7 


(T.P. 16-18 per cent.) 


2. 5^ 




2 11§ 


2.13§ 


3. 2 


Slay Phosphate (T.P. 60 per cent.) 


6. 






6.17$ 


2. 3 


,r ., (T.P 50 per cent.) 






6.12§ 


5.17$ 


2. 4 


„ „ (T.P 40 per cent. ) 


4. 7^ 




4 17$ 


2. 5 


Superphosphate (S. P. 35 per cent.) ... 


4. 9 




4.15^ 


4 5 


2. 5 


(S. P. 30 per cent.) 


3.K) 


3.10 


4. 2v^ 


3.15 


2. (; 


Bone Meal (T.P. 45 per cent ) 


9 10 


9 lOt 


9. 


i). 




Steamed Boue Flour (T.P. 60 per cent.) 


8.1 Of 


8. 5t 


8. 5 


7 7 




Fish Guano (A. 9-10. T.P. 16-20 per cent). ... 


12 15 




12. 5 


12. 7 





Abbreviations : N.= Nitros^en ; A. = Ammonia ; S. P. = Soluble Phosphate ; T.P.= 

Total Pho-phate : Pot.= Potash. 

* Delivered in 4 ton lots at purchaser's nearest railway station. 

t Delivered (within a limited area) at ]iurchaser's near st railwaj^ station. 

$ Prices include cost of carriage from works to town named. C 'St to pu chasers 
in other districts will be greater or less according to the distance of different 
purchasers from the works. 



840 



Notes on Feeding Stuffs for December. 



[Dec, 



NOTES ON FEEDING STUFFS FOR 

DECEMBER. 

E. T. Halnan, M.A., Dip. Agric. (Cantab.), 
Ministry of Agnciilture and Fisheries. 

How to use the Feeding Stufis Table. — Several correspon- 
dents have asked for information as to the method of using 
the table given every month in these notes, and it may be 
useful to repeat here notes that have been given at different 
times in previous issues. 

It v^ill be noted that the table contains two sections. The 
first deals with the actual current wholesale prices at markets, 
and the second gives an estimate of the values for feeding on 
the farm home-grown feeding stuffs. 

Market Prices. — When a farmer feeds a purchased cake or 
feeding stuff to stock, a certain amount of the nitrogen, potash 
and phosphates in that feeding stuff finds its way into the 
urine or the dung and is used for manuring the ground. A 
feeding stuff when purchased therefore has a manurial value 
as well as a feeding value, so that in comparing the feeding 
values of any purchased cakes we have to take into considera- 
tion the manurial value. In the table given, the manurial 
value of the cake or feeding stuff is first rassessed from the 
current prices of artificial manures and this figure is sub- 
tracted from the price per ton of the feeding stuff. This gives 
the cost of the food value per ton of the feeding stuff. Now 
the starch equivalent figure given in the fifth column of the 
table gives as accurate a figure of the feeding value of the 
feeding stuff as is required for all practical purposes. The 
cost of the food value is therefore divided by the starch 
equivalent figure, and this gives the cost per food unit. The 
cheapest feeding stuff is the feeding stuff which is the cheapest 
per unit of starch equivalent. Thus, in this month's table 
wet porter grains prove the cheapest feeding stuff available 
where local conditions allow its ready transport. American 
oats are also much cheaper than Canadian. Scotch, or English 
oats. 

Several correspondents have mentioned from time to time 
that the prices given in this table differ from the prices current 
on local markets. This is admittedly so, and for this reason 
the method of working out the unit value of a feeding stuff is 
given in the footnote to the table. This enables a farmer to 



1922.] Notes on Feeding Stuffs for December. 841 





Price 


Price 


Manurial 
Value 


Cost of 
Food 


bear ell 
Equiv. 

per 
100 lb. 


Price 
per 

Unit, 
Starch 
Equiv. 


Price 
per lb. 


Description. 


per 
Qr. 


per 
Ton. 


per 
Ton. 


Value per 
Ton. 


Starch 

R n n 1 "u 




s. 


lb. 


£ s. 


£ «. 


£ 


s. 




s. 


d. 


Wheat, British - 


4.")/(; 


504 


10 2 


18 


9 


4 


71-6 


1 

2/7 


1 

1 1-38 


Barley, British Feeding 


82/(; 


400 


9 2 


14 


8 


8 


71 


2/4 


1 -25 


,, Canadian No. 8 


















Western 


85/- 


400 


9 16 


14 


9 


2 


71 


2/7 


' 1-88 


Oats, English White 


86/- 


386 


12 


16 


11 


4 


59-5 


3/9 


2-01 


,, ., Black & Grey 


81/- 


386 


10 7 


16 


9 


11 


59-5 


3/8 


1-74 


,, Scotch White 


8S/- 


336 


12 18 


16 


11 


17 


59-5 


4/0 


2-14 


,, Canadian No. 2 
















Western 


84/- 
81/6 
29/- 


820 


11 18 


16 


11 


2 


59-5 


8/9 


2-01 


„ „ No. 2 Feed 


820 


11 


16 


10 


4 


59-5 


3/5 


1 -88 


,, American 


820 


10 3 


16 


9 


7 


59-5 


8/2 


1-70 


,, Argentine 


30/- 


820 


10 10 


16 


9 


14 


59-5 


8/8 


1-74 


Maize, Argentine - 


42/- 


480 


9 16 


15 


9 


1 


81 


2/3 


1-20 


., American - 


41/- 


480 


9 11 


15 


8 


16 


81 


2/2 


1-16 


„ South African - 


41/- 


480 


!» 11 


15 


8 


16 


81 


2/2 


1-16 


Beans, English Winter - 


51/- 


582 


10 15 


1 17 


8 


18 


67 


2/8 


1-43 


,, Rangoon - 


8/6 
60/- 


112 


8 10 


1 17 


() 


13 


67 


2/- 


1-07 


Peas, English Dun 


504 


13 7 


1 18 


11 


14 


69 


3/5 


1-88 


„ „ Maple - 


85/- 


504 


18 18 


1 13 


17 


5 


69 


5/- 


2-68 


Rye, Home-grown 


84/- 


504 


7 11 


18 


6 


18 


71-6 


1/10 


0-98 


Millers' offals- 
















Bran, British - 


— 


— 


6 10 


1 12 


4 


18 


45 


2/2 


1-16 


Broad Bran 


— 


— 


7 10 


1 12 


5 


18 


45 


2/7 


1-38 


Fine middlings (Im- 


















ported) 


— 


— 


9 7 


1 6 


8 


1 


72 


2/8 


1-20 


Coarse middlings 


















(British) 






8 12 


1 6 


7 


6 


64 


2/3 


1-20 


Pollards (Imported) 


— 




7 5 


1 12 


5 


18 


60 


1/11 


1-08 


Barley Meal - 


— 




11 


14 


10 


6 


71 


2/11 


1-56 


Maize ., - - 


— 


— 


10 10 


15 


9 


15 


81 


2/5 


1-29 


„ Germ Meal - 


— 


— 


10 10 


1 2 


9 


8 


85-8 


2/2 


1-16 


,, Gluten -feed 


— 


— 


9 10 


1 12 


7 


18 


75 6 


2/1 


1-12 


Locust Bean Meal 


— 


— 


8 15 


11 


8 


4 


71-4 


2/4 


1 -25 


Bean Meal - 


— 


— 


13 10 


1 17 


11 


13 


67 


3/6 


1-87 


Fish „ - . . 


— 




14 


5 1 


8 


19 


53 


8/5 


1-83 


Linseed 






21 2 


1 16 


19 


D 


119 


8/8 


1-74 


„ Cake, English 


















(97o oil) 






14 Of 


2 5 


11 


15 


74 


8/2 


1-70 


Cottonseed ,, English 
(57o oil) 




















7 15 


2 1 


5 


14 


42 


2/9 


1-47 


„ „ Egyptian 
(5°/^ oil) 
























7 15 


2 1 


5 


14 


42 


2/9 


1-47 


Doya isean cake (by^ oil) 
Coconut Cake (67^ oil) 






12 5 


3 8 


!) 


2 


69 1 


2/8 


1-43 






9 


1 16 


7 


4 


73 


2/- 


ru7 


Palm Kernel Meal ° 


















^ ^ (4-27oOil) 






5 12 


1 8 


4 


4 


71-3 


1/2 


0-62 


Feeding Treacle - 






4 10 


10 


4 





51 


1/7 


1-85 


Brewers' grains,dried,ale 






7 15 


1 8 


6 


7 


49 


2/7 


1 -38 


)5 ,, „ porter 






7 5 


1 8 


5 


17 


49 


2/5 


1-29 


M „ wet, ale 






1 5 


11 





14 


15 


-/II 


1 -49 


„ ., wet, porter 






18 1 


11 





7 1 


15 


-/6 


0-27 



■(■ At Liverpool. 

NOTE.— The prices quoted above represent the average prices at which actual wholesale 
transactions have taken place in Loudon, unless otherwise stated, and refer to the price ex mill or 
store. The prices were current at the end of October and are, as a rule, considerably lower than 
ttie prices at local country markets, the difference being due to carriage and dealers' comuiission. 
Buyers can, however, easily compare the relative prices of the feeding stuffs on offer at their local 
market by the method of calculation used in these notes. Thus, suppose coconut cake is offered 
locally at £10 per ton. Its manurial value is £1 16s per ton. The food value per ton is therefore 
£8 4s. per ton. Dividing this figure by 73, the starch equivalent of roconut cake as given in 
the table, the cost per unit of starch equivalent is 2s. 3d. Dividing this again bv 'i'2-4. the numlier 
of pounds of starch equivalent in 1 unit, the cost per lb. of starch'equiviilent is"l-21d A similar 
calculation will show the relative cost per lb. of starch equivalent of other feeding fluff's on the same 
local market. Frcm the results of such calculations a buyer can determine which feeding stuff gives 
him the best value at the prices quoted on his own market. 



842 



Notes on Feeding Stuffs for December. 



[Dec, 



.ascertain for himself the cheaper of any two feeding stuffs 
offered him, and he can then decide whether the difference in 
condition and quality of sample justifies the difference in the 
price asked. The chief object in view in publishing this table 
is to draw attention to the kind of feeding stuffs which are on 
offer at low values and likely to prove an economical purchase 
to the farmer. 

Farm Values. — The second section of the table deals with the 
estimated value of home-grown produce on the farm. In this 
case, the reader should look at the price per ton of the feeding 
stuff and compare it w^ith the price per ton offered him for 
sale. If the price per ton offered for his home-grown products 
shows a profit after allowing for cartage charges and buying 
in fresh feeding stuffs, it will be an advantage to sell off these 
products and buy in feeding stuffs. If, on the other hand, 
such a procedure shows a loss, it will prove a more profitable 
transaction to feed off the home-grown product rather than 
sell it. It will be noted, for instance, that wheat, oats and 
barley still show a distinct margin of profit if sold off rather 
than kept for feeding, except in the case of middlings which 
is distinctly dearer than the farm value of wheat. In the case 
of barley, too, it would be an unprofitable transaction to sell 
off barley at .^9 2s. a ton and buy in barley meal at £11 a 
ton. 



FARM VALUES. 


Value per 
Ton on 
Farm. 

£ s. 


Manurial 
Value per 
Ton, 

£ s. 


Food 
Value per 
Ton. 

£ s 


starch 
Equivalent 
per 100 lbs. 


Value 
per 
unit 
S.E. 
1 s. d. 


Market 
Value per 
lb. S.E. 

d. 


Wheat .... - 


8 13 


18 


7 15 


71-6 


2/2 


i-16 


Oats 


7 5 


16 


6 9 


59-5 


2/2 


1-16 


Barley 


8 8 


14 


7 14 


71-0 


2/2 


M6 


Potatoes - - - . 


2 3 


4 


1 19 


18-0 


2/2 


1-16 


Swedes .... 


18 


3 


1.5 


7-0 


2/2 


1-16 


Man,e:olds - . . . 


16 


3 


13 


6-0 


2/2 


1-16 


Good Meadow Hay 


4 16 


16 


4 


31-0 


2/7 


1-38 


Good Oat Straw - 


2 12 


8 


2 4 


17-0 


2/7 


1-38 


Good Clover Hay 


5 7 


1 4 


4 3 


32-0 


2/7 


1-38 


Vetch and Oat Silage - 


2 2 


9 


1 13 


14-0 


2/4 


1-27 



****** 



1922.] 



Kegister of Dairy Cattle. 



845 



The Ministry has decided to extend the scope of its Register 
of Dairy Cows by including additional Sections as indicated below. 
Resister of Tiiese additions will, it is hoped, enhance 
Dair Cattle usefulness and value of the Register. 

The Volume No. VI., for the year ending 
1st October, 1922, will accordingly be known as the Ministry's 
" Register of Dairy Cattle," and will comprise: — 
Section I. : Dairy Cows — 

(a) With certified milk records of prescribed yields [i.e., 
8,000 lb. for one year, or 6,500 lb. average for two or more 
consecutive years) for the year ending 1st October, 1922 ; 

(h) In respect of which Certificates of Merit have been 
awarded. 

The object of Certificates of Merit is to encourage Dairy 
Farmers to retain in their herds cows which, in addition to 
being heavy milkers, are also regular breeders. Certificates of 
Merit will be issued on application from owners in respect of 
cows which have been entered in the Register for three consecu- 
tive years, and which during those three years have yielded not 
less than 24,000 lb. of milk and calved not less than three times^ 

Section II. : Pedigree Bulls for Dairy Herds — 

(a) Whose dams and sires' dams have been entered or 
accepted for entry in the Ministry's Register of Dairy 
Cattle; or 

(b) Having two or more daughters entered or accepted for 
entry in the Ministry's Register of Dairy Cattle. 

The object of this Section of the Register is to encourage dairy 
farmers to use pedigree bulls bred from milking strain, or those 
whose female progeny have proved to be satisfactory dairy cows, 
and also to provide dairy farmers with a list of such bulls, 
together with the names and addresses of their breeders and 
owners. 

The Ministry desires to direct attention to the fact that the 
price of Volume V. of the Register of Dairy Cows for the year 
ended 1st October, 1921, which will be ready shortly, has been 
reduced to 2s. 6d. net, post free. Applications for copies should 
be addressed to the Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, Whitehall Place, S.W.I. Remittances should be by 
Postal Order, Money Order or Cheque, made payable to the 
Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, and crossed 
" Bank of England." 



* 



'844 



Small Holdings in Essex. 



[Dec, 



Recent observations concerning the prices obtained by 

growers for dessert apples when properly graded and packed, 

. » in comparison with similar fruit marketed 
FriCGs of 

. , in the more usual way, have brought out 

AT3 13168 • 

' some facts which illustrate the profitable- 

ness of the better method. 

A record crop of Worcester Pearmains, grown in Gloucester- 
shire, was sent to Manchester and Birmingham markets in the 
British Standard boxes containing 40 lb. of fruit. The average 
price per box including first and second grade fruit so marketed 
was 15s. 

Some pots of the same variety and quality, but ungraded and 
loose, were sent to the Cheltenham Fruit Market in the ordinary 
way. The price realised for these was 6s, Bd. per 56-lb. pot, 
or Ifd. per lb., compared with 4^d. per lb. obtained in the other 
markets for the boxed fruit. 

Even when the supply of box wood had run out and a con- 
signment was sent in 56-lb. wickers, well graded and properly 
packed, to the salesman who had sold the boxes, the price con- 
tinued to be 4Jd. per lb., or 21s. per pot. The salesman pointed 
out that the excellent prices were maintained solely because 
the grower's reliable packing was already known in the market. 



***** 



In connection with the Farm Competitions organised by the 

Essex Agricultural Society, with a view to improving cultivation 

« 11 TT ij- and stimulating production on farms and 
Small Holdings , ^.^ ^ , 

. ° small holdings m Essex, several prizes, 

m Essex. ^..^^^^^ ^ ^ g^^,^^^^ ^ 

President of the Society, were offered this year for the best cul- 
tivated County Council Small Holdings. There would appear to 
have been keen competition for the prizes. Thirty-three small- 
holders entered in the class for holdings under 15 acres, and 
forty-one for that limited to small holdings over that acreage. 
Five prizes were awarded in each class, and in addition thirteen 
entrants who came just below prize merit were " commended," 
one being highly commended." 

In the course of some general remarks on the holdings 
inspected and on the work of the Small Holdings Committee, the 
judges made th? following observations : — 

" With regard to the land acquired by the Committee for 
"Small Holdings, we were most favourably impressed with its 
quality and suitability for the purpose. In these respects the 



1922.] 



Market for Poultry Feathers. 



845'. 



land far exceeded our expectations, and was indeed a most 
ple:asant surprise, as we had often heard disparaging reports 
of it. This remark has special emphasis in the case of the 
Boxted, Beaumont, and Eastwoodbary Settlements, where the 
land appeared to us to be admirably suited for the purpose for 
which it was purchased. 

" Bearing in mind the fact that it would certainly be some of 
the best cultivated holdings which would be entered for 
competition, we must say that we were pleased with m:any 
of the holdings we inspected. In some cases where knowledge, 
ability, industry, and physical strength are all combined in 
a man and his family, we saw the most gratifying and satis- 
factory results, though at the cost of strenuous Labour and 
long hours of toil, such as few farm labourers would care to 
put in." 

There is no doubt that these competitions must have a very 
beneficial effect on the cultivation of holdings throughout the 
county, and it is very gratifying that experienced farmers should 
be able to report so favourably on the results of the efforts of 
the Small Holdings Committee and their tenants. 

****** 

Poultry-keepers who have large stocks are advised to keep 
in mind the possibility of marketing poultry feathers. From 
Market for information which the Ministry has obtained 

. .„ from various sources, it appears that large 

Poultry Feathers. „ i^ . ^^ 

quantities oi poultry feathers are annually 

imported from China, United States, France, and Portugal, and 
that some are exported from this country to the Colonies. The 
weights and values of these imports in 1913 were 45,016 cwt. 
at i:i59,366; in 1919, 52,468 cwt. at ^£284,791; and in 1920, 
79,115 cwt. at .^587, 516. 

English feathers are usually regarded in the Trade as inferior 
to the best imported kinds on account of the fact that when mar- 
keted they are not so free from dirt and impurity. Feathers for 
sale should be clean, and should be graded both as regards 
colour and qaahty as they are plucked. White and light-coloured 
feathers are the best, and fowl feathers should be kept separate 
from those of ducks and geese, as the feathers of the latter are 
of much greater value. The different kinds might be loosely 
packed in muslin or scrim bags and hung up in a dry place out 
of reach of any ground damp. The quill feathers, which are of 
less value, should never be mixed with the smaller feathers. 



S46 



Yield of Potato and Eoot Crops. [Dec, 



Consignments of 5 cwt. and upwards are easily disposed of to 
feather merchants, and smaller quantities can often be sold pri- 
vately, and possibly better prices obtained than the merchant 
will give. A list of names of dealers in feathers can be had on 
appHcation to the Ministry, 10, Whitehall Place, S.W.I. 

****** 

Potatoes. — At the end of October probably about three-fourths 
of the potatoes had been lifted in the country as a whole. 
Probable Yield ^^^^^^er conditions had been favourable 
Potato and "^^^ ^^^^ tubers stored in dry condition. 
Root Cro s ^^^^ ^^^^ healthy :and the tubers 
^ * mostly large, though there are occasional 
reports of disease and damage by slugs. Heavy crops will be 
obtained in all parts of the country except in the north-west, 
where they are considered about average. The yield per acre 
was estimated on 1st November at 7 tons per acre, or 1 ton per 
acre above average, which would give a total production of 
about 3,920,000 tons in England and Wales against 2,960,000 
tons last year. 

Roots. — The pulling and storing of mangolds was in progress 
at the end of October, and in some districts the bulk of the crop 
liad been harvested. Yields well over the average will be 
obtained in the east and south-east, but in other parts of the 
country the roots are mostly sm:all and yields somewhat below- 
average are expected in the north and in Wales. Turnips 
and swedes are rather small in most districts. These crops 
also have done best in the east and south-east, whilst in 
the north-west and in Wales under average yields are expected. 
The yields per acre of both mangolds, turnips and swedes 
■over the whole country are expected to prove about 7 per cent, 
above taverage, mangolds being forecasted at rather more than 
20 tons and turnips and swedes at slightly over 13 tons per 
:acre. These yields would give a total production of mangolds 
of 8,500.000 tons against 6,250,000 tons last year, and of turnips 
and swedes 10.860,000 tons against 6,600,000 tons in 1921. 

The appearance of the potrato and root crops on 1st November 
indicated probable yields per acre as shown in the table below. 
These forecasts, however, are not based on detailed inquiries 
such as are carried out in connection with the final estimates 
of yield issued after harvest, and therefore have not the same 
degree of accuracy. It should also be borne in mind that the 



1922.] 



Test of Varieties of Fruit. 



847 



actual yields may be affected by weather conditions after 1st 
October : — 



Potatoes. 



Turnips cmd Swedes. 



Manyolds. 



Ceunties. 


Forecast, 


Ten Years' 


Forecast, 


Ten Years' 


Forecast, 


Ten Years 




1922. 


Average. 


1922. 


Av' rage. 


1922. 


Average. 




Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Eastern 


. (;-9 


0-0 


13-5 


10-3 


21-3 


16-7 


North-Eastern . 


7-8 


6-2 


12-7 


11-0 


19-5 


17-8 


South-Eastern . 


7-3 


5-7 


14-2 


10-9 


21-6 


18-7 


East Midland . 


G-6 




10-() 


IM 


18-1 


18-1 


West Midland . 


.. 7-0 


5-8 


134 


13-5 


22(; 


21-7 


iSouth- Western. 


.. 6-5 


5-5 


13-8 


12-8 


21-5 


21-5 


Northern 


. 6-0 


5-2 


14-7 


12-9 


15-1 


16-5 


North- Western. 


()-9 


0-8 


13-5 


16-7 


18-6 


21-0 


North Wales . 


6-4 


5-3 


11-7 


14-6 


15-5 


17-2 


South AVales . 


6-9 


0-3 


ll-o 


14-1 


15-9 


17-0 



England 
AND Wales 



7-0 



6-0 



13-2 



12-3 



20-2 



18- 



Test of Varieties 
of Fruit for 
Commercial 
Purposes. 



The Ministry and the Koyal Horticultural Society have set 
up a Joint Committee to administer a scheme for the official 

testing of new varieties of fruit for com- 
mercial purposes. Under the scheme the 
Eoyal Horticultural Society's Gardens at 
Wisley will serve as the Central Station, at 
which all varieties will be tested in the first 
instance. In later years varieties selected as showing merit will 
be sent for further testing to sub-stations which the Committee 
hope to establish in various fruit districts throughout the country. 

Tests will be confined for the present to hardy fruits — apples, 
pears, plums, cherries, gooseberries, currants, raspberries, straw- 
berries, etc., and also nuts. 

The Committee is now prepared to receive applications for the 
reception of plants, buds, and grafts sufficient to allow the 
following number of trees, bushes and plants to be grown of 
^ach varietv : — 

20 Half standard. 

'plus 20 Bushes. 

10 Half standard. 

Currants, gooseberries, raspberries 

and other berries ... ... 20 Bushes. 

Strawberries ... ... ... ... 100 Plants. 



Apples and pears 
Plums, cherries and nuts 



848 Serum Treatment for Swine Fever. [Dec.^ 



Buds or grafts will be worked on approved stocks. 

In no circumstances will the central station or a sub-station 
permit trees, buds or grafts to be taken oft the station. 

The Committee will, after a consideration of the reports of 
the recording staff and selected specialists, issue reports in which 
recommendations of special varieties will be made. No report on 
a variety will, however, be issued until sufficient time has elapsed 
to enable a fair test to be carried out. 

The Committee for this purpose consists of : — 

Professor W. Batesoii, F.R.S. (Chairman). 

Mr. W. G. Lobjoit, O.B.E., J.P.^ 

Mr. H. V. Taylor, M.B.E., B.Sc. f , ■ , a ^ 

Mr J C F Frver MA V ^PP^^^^^ed by the 

Profe;so'r B. T. P.Barker, M.A. ( ^Ii"istry of Agriculture. 

Mr. G. W. Leak. ; 

The Chairman of the Wisley Committee.^ 

The Director of Wisley. / Appointed by the 

The Chairman of the Fruit Committee. > Royal Horticultural 

Mr. E. A. Bunyard. i Society. 

Mr. Cuthbert Smith. ) 

All communications concerning the scheme should be addressed 

t ) The Director, Royal Horticultural Society Gardens, Wisley,- 

Eipley, Surrey. 

****** 

The Ministry announces that as from 1st January, 1923, it 
will no longer be able to supply Anti- Swine-Fever Serum for the 

_ . ^ treatment of pigs in order to protect them 
Serum Treatment . - £ n a ■ -u^ 

for Swine Fever "'^^ mfection oi Swme iever. 

This materia] has hitherto been supplied 
by the Ministry free of charge, to owners of pigs in cases suitable 
for the adoption of this method of preventing the spread of dis- 
ease to apparently healthy pigs on premises where swine fever 
has broken out. The method is only relatively inexpensive, and 
its value depends upon the conditions under which it can be 
applied in practice. The Ministry has found, however, as the 
result of experience, that owing to the difficulty of getting in 
touch with outbreaks before infection has made considerable 
inroads among the stock, successful results in connection with 
preventive treatment are greatly interfered with. Having regard 
to this and to the necessitv for economv, it is considered advis- 
able to discontinue serum treatment until such time as a safe 
method of giving permanent, in place of temporary, immunity 
has been worked out. 

The Ministry will be prepared, through its Inspectors, to advise 
owners of pigs concerned in an outbreak, whether their individual 



1922.] 



Conciliation Committees in Agriculture. 



849 



cases are more favourable than usual, for the application of 
serum as a temporary preventive, and will also advise them how 
the serum can be purchased on the market if desired. 



* 



Importation of 
Onion and 
Leek Seed. 



The importation of onion and leek seed into this country is 
subject to the provisions of the Destructive Insects and Pests 

(Importation of Onion and Leek Seed) 
Order, 1922, and all consignments should 
be inspected in the country of origin before 
shipment, and certified to be free from 
disease. 

Large quantities of this seed are imported from the United 
States, and as a result of representations made by the Con- 
troller of Horticulture during his recent visit to Washington, 
it is understood that the American authorities propose to 
arrange for the examination, while growing, of onion and 
leek crops intended for the production of seed for export. It 
is probable that the American authorities will refuse to grant 
certificates for seed from crops which have not been inspected 
whilst growing, and importers should therefore take immediate 
steps to warn their growers in i^merica to ask for the inspection 
of onion and leek crops now being grown for the production of 
seed for export to this country. 

* * * 

The following 



* 



* 



Conciliation Com- 
mittees in Agriculture. 



further agreements 
have been made by Concihation Com- 
mittees during the past month : — 

Details. 



A rea. 
Cheshire - 



Derbv 



Devon 



PeHod. 
24th Oct., 1922. 
to 30th April. 
1023 



1st Oct.,1922. to 
31st Dec. 1922 

30th Oct., 1922. 
to 31st Dec, 
1922, and on- 
ward to Ladv 
Day, 1923, un- 
less notice ol" 
revision is given 
by either side 



^9^- W age. Remarks. 
21 ife over 32/- for guaranteed Proportionate 
week of 54 hrs. rates for 
Overtime 9d. per 
hr. 



male workers 
under 21 
vears. 



do. Td.perhr. on week- — 
days and 9d, per 
hr. on Sundays 

do. 30/- for week of Proportionate 
50 hrs. Overtime rates for 
8d. per hr. on male workers 
weekdays and under 21 
lOd. per hr. on and special 
Sundays rates for 

female work- 
ers 

The overtime 
rates operate 
until Ladv 
Dav, 1923 " 



850 Conciliation^ Committees in Agriculture. [Dec, 



Details. 



Area. Period. 

Lanes.. S. - To 3Ut Dec. 
1922 

Lanes., N. - To 31st Jan., 
1923 

Lanes., E. - To 30th April, 
1923 

Loughborough From 4th Nov., 
1922, until a 
fortnight after 
notiee of ean- 
eellation is 
given by either 
side 

Shropshire - From 1st Nov., 
1922. to 24th 
Feb., 1923 



Age. 
21 vie over 

do. 

do. 

do. 



do. 



Yorks. East 
Riding 



•Cardigan- 



From 28th Oct. 



1922, 
Dec., 



to 29th 
1922 



'Carnarvon 



13th Nov., 1922, 
to 13th Nov., 
1923, but sub- 
ject to revision 
in March, 1923, 
if either side 
desires 

From 13th Nov., 
1922, to 13th 
May, 1923 



do. 



do. 



Wage. 

37/6 for week of 
usual hrs. 

37/6 for week of 
usual hrs. 

40/- for week 
usual hrs. 

32/- per week of 
52 hrs. Overtime 
7d. per hr. on 
weekdays, 9d. per 
hr. on Sundays 



7d. per hr. for 
guaranteed week 
of 48 hrs. Over- 
time 7d. per hr. 
on weekdays, 9d. 
per hr. on Sun- 
days 

30/- per week 



Remarks. 



of — 



30/- 
54 



week of 



per 

hrs. in sum- 
mer and 50 hrs. 
in ^^•inter 



Proportionate 
rates for 
male work- 
ers under 21 
years of age 



Female and 
children wor- 
kers 2/6 per 
day 

Proportionate 
rates for 
male workers 
under 21 
years of age 



do. 



33/- for week of 61 



Proportionate 
rates for 
male work- 
ers under 21 
years of age 



hrs. (including 
Sunday) to special 
classes of workers. 
30/- for 50 hrs. 
with overtime at 
7d. per hr. on 
weekdays and 8d. 
per hr. on Sun- 
days for other 
workers 

Denbigh and — do. 33/- for week of — 

Flint 61 hrs. for stock- 

men and carters ; 
27/- for week of 
50 hrs. for other 
male workers 

The Committee for the Holland division of Lincolnshire also 
agreed to extend the period of operation of their last agreement 
until the 8th November, 1922. 

Full particulars of the agreements for any particular area will 
1)6 furnished on application to the Ministry. 



* 



* 



1922.] 



Agriculture Abroad. 



851 



AGRICULTURE ABROAD. 

AGRAEIAN LEGISLATION IN EUROPE— EXPENDITURE 
OF THE U.S.A. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE- 
APPROPRIATIONS FOR AGRICULTURE IN CANADA- 
DAIRYING IN NOVA SCOTIA— WEEDS IN MANITOBA 
— TIMBER SEASONING INVENTION — AGRICUL- 
TURAL WAGES IN U.S.A. 

The issue oi the " International Labour Review " for 
September contains a very interesting survey of post-war 
New Agrarian ^^g^'^rian legislation in Central Europe. 

T • 1 +• • The main purpose of the reforms is 
Legislation m , i i n i • 

Central Euro e ^^^^^^^ be the democratic ownership 
^ * of land, to be attained by dividing up 
the great estates and by strengthening peasant proprietor- 
ship. The land required for the purpose is acquired 
by different methods. In Germany, Austria, and Hungary, 
land belonging to or purchased from voluntary sellers by 
the state (under rights of pre-emption) is used for creating small 
farms. Should this means be insufficient for the purpose of 
reform a strictly limited right of expropriation can be sanctioned. 
In Czecho-SloMkia, Poland, Rumania and Lithuania, large- 
scale ownership as such is rejected and the new reform legisla- 
tion is based on the principle that this class of ownership should 
loe suppressed. There is in consequence no question of acquisi- 
tion from voluntary sellers, but the maximum areas which can 
be held by individuals are fixed, according to the nature of the 
land, and expropriation of the rest is insisted on by the terms 
of the various Acts. In Esthonia and Latvia the properties 
subject to exnronriation are not decided bv maximum areas but 
are those belonging to a certain class of proprietors. The so- 
called " estates of the nobles " are to be totally expropriated. 
The method of compensation for expropriation has not yet been 
decided in these two states, but in the other countries special 
arrangements have been made for a full or partial payment by 
way of compensation (either in cash or in government stock), 
the valuations to be made generally on a pre-war basis. 

Tho cultivation of estates in their present form is. as a rule, 
permitted by the new legislation, only when carried on by public 
institutions, such as agricultural schools or experimental 
stations, or sirniiar undertakings, or when agricultural co-opera- 
tive societies are the owners. In several agrarian laws the 

F 2' 



Ageiculture Abroad. [Dec, 



co-operative cultivation of estates is expressly mentioned as 
one of the purposes of the reforms. While it is intended to 
parcel out expropriated lands to increase the size of already 
existing small holdings, the principal aim is invariably the 
creation of flourishing new small holdings. In introducing 
regulations as to the maximum size of the holdings, it is the 
hope of each state to create undertakings which will be inde- 
pendent both from the economic and social points of view. The 
dimensions fixed by each country vary according to the purpose 
of the holding and the nature of the land. 

The persons entitled to acquire land set aside for purposes 
of agrarian reform embrace the following classes : — (1) Ex- 
service men, disabled ex-service men capable of work, and the 
dependents of soldiers fallen in the war; (2) Workers employed 
on the expropriated estates; fS) Other landless inhabitants of 
rural districts; (4) Former employees in the service of the State, 
in public service, and disabled ex-service men incapable of full 
work. 

Almost all countries admit the preferential claims of persons 
in class (1) by which they are able partially to solve the problem 
of the ex-service man; socially by providing him with a means 
of livelihood, and financially by relieving the country of pen- 
sions obligations. 

The general methods of assisting settlers to acquire land are 
either by some scheme for the granting of rent-titles under an 
authorised deed of transfer, which provides for the payment 
of a fixed annual rent (either in money or in kind) by the 
settler to the former owner, without the payment of any initial 
sum down, or by the estabhshment of settlement funds or rural 
banks, regulated by the government, for the purpose of granting 
loans. The principle that the settler shall not become complete 
owner of the land is contemplated in all countries under dis- 
cussion. 

Finally, with a view to maintaining the economic independ- 
ence of the newly estabhshed holdings, special regulations have 
been laid down to guard against unskilful cultivation. Measures 
have been taken against the division or mortgaging of the 
holding, and the personal responsibility of the settler for the 
ef&cient working of the holding is clearly defined and can be 
enforced by the power of the State to re-purchase and dispossess 
the holder. 

It is anticipated that the fundamental character of the new 
agrarian legislation, as incorporated in the various Acts which 



852 



1922.] 



Agmcui.ture Abroad . 



853 



have been passed during the last three years in the countries 
of Central Europe, will henceforward be maintained in spite of 
modifications in detail which may be introduced from time to 
time in the practical application of the reforms. 



***** 



The Experiment Station Record for July, 1922, contains an 
account of the appropriations made by Congress for the expendi- 

Expenditure of the ^''^^ I^^partment of Agricul- 

TT f« * -r* * * ture during the year ending 30th June, 

U.S.A. Department „ ^ •-, -, u ^i. 

„ . . 1923. The funds provided by the mam 

of Agriculture , ^ u ^ ^i. i 

for 1922 23 $36,770,000 but there are also 

other funds available for meat inspection, 
agricultural education, forestry, bonuses on salaries, etc., 
which bring the total estimated expenditure of the Department 
up to about $152,000,000 (say, £11,760,000 at the rate of 
exchange of .^1.42 to £1). This is not tar from the amount 
provided for the previous year 

An interesting feature of the programme is the formation 
of a Bureau of Agricultural Economics, under the direction 
of Dr. H. C. Taylor, by the consolidation of the Office of 
Farm Management and Farm Economics with the Bureau of 
Markets and Crop Estimates. The provision for this Bureau 
amounts to about £804,500, of which, apart from the amounts 
for statutory salaries and general administrative expenses, 
£66,000 is allotted for the investigation of improved methods 
of farm management and practice (£34,000 being for cost of 
production studies), £106,000 for marketing studies, and 
£92,000 for the market news service. A number of Acts 
regulating agriculture and trade are administered by the 
Bureau, such as the Cotton Futures Act, Grain Standards 
Act, Packers and Stockyards Act, and the Future Trading Act. 
The cost of these is put at £300,000, and in addition £37,000 
is appropriated for the operation of a market by the Depart- 
ment. 

It may be pointed out that a number of duties are carried 
out by the U.S. Department of Agriculture which fall under 
other Departments than the Ministry of Agriculture in this 
country, e.g., inspection of meat and other foods, forestry, and 
expenditure on road studies. The main divisions of work and 
the appropriations for them are as follows : — 



854 



Agricui tup.e Abeoad. 



[Dec, 



Animal Industry 1,57G,U00 

Forest Service " 1,485,000 

Plant Industry 798,000 

Chemistry 228.900 

Soils ..; 84,000 

Entomology 402,300 

Biological Survey 197,000 
States Relations Service (Agricultural Instruction 

and allied work) 1,037,500 

Agricultural Economics ... ... ... ... 804,500 

Weather 435,600 

An interesting item in the estimate for the Bureau of Animal 
Industry is a sum of £'651,000 for the campaign against tuber- 
culosis. In the course of this work during 1921 over 2,000,000 
cattle were tested, of which about 3.9 per cent, reacted. 

The Bureaux of Plant Industry and Entomology are respon- 
sible for heavy expenditure on the eradication of plant diseases 
and insect pests — e.g., £80,000 and £45,000 respectively for 
the barberry and white pine blister-rust campaigns, and £40,000 
on account of citrus canker. This last disease was thought to 
be practically eradicated, but the discovery of a new infestation 
necessitated a supplementary estimate of £34,000 in addition 
to the £6,000 at first provided. In the case of insect pests 
£136,000 is allowed for preventing the spread of the gipsy and 
browntail moths, and £45,000 for combating the European 
corn-borer. 

The budget of the Bureau of Soils includes an item of 
£16,000 for the investioation of fertilisers and other soil amend- 
ments and their suitability for agricultural use. 

The appropriations under the States Eelations Service, deal- 
ing largely with aid to extension instruction in agriculture and 
domestic economy for boys and girls after leaving school, have 
been decreased from £1,097,000 to £1,038,000. but there will 
be other funds available for the work, such as £1,036,000 under 
the Smith-Lever Act. 

The Weather Bureau's budget is increased by £9,000. mainly 
for its routine observations, but with £700 additional to extend 
the warnings given to fruit growers regarding impending frosts. 

The approved estimates as a whole present few changes 
from those of recent years. The increased funds are generally 
for the carrying out of new regulations or for combating par- 
ticular plant and animal diseases, and show the tendency of 
the U.S. Congress in late years to vote money for those 
purposes. 

****** 



1922.] Agriculture Abroad. 855 



The agricultviral appropriations or estimates of the Dominion 
of Canada foi- the year 1922-23 are given in the Agncultural 
. .. Gazette of Canada for September-October, 
Appropriations ^^^^ Provision is made for a total expen- 
for Agriculture ^.^^^^^^ $5,989,000, or at the present rate 
m Canada. exchange approximately £1,345,900, 

compared with a total of £1,259,600 for 1921-22. The principal 
headings of expenditm^e are : — Experimental Farms £297,700, 
Diseases of Animals £401,100, Live Stock Improvement 
£238,200, Seed, Feeding Stuffs and Fertilisers Control £61,800, 
Destructive Insect and Pest Act £53,900. Dairying £39,300, 
Fruit £35,300. 

The estimates of agricultural expenditure in 1922-23 for some 
of the Canadian Provincial Governments are also shown. For 
Ontario the total is £370.400, of which £129.600 is allocated to 
the Ontario Agricultural College. British Columbia will spend 
£85.300, the largest item in this province being for horticulture, 
viz., £23,500. 

****** 

The passing of an Act by the Nova Scotia Government re- 
quiring that on and after 1st May last, all cream dehvered, 
ent of ^^^^ purchased at any creamery or 
. . . cream station in the country must be 

graded as to quality, and payment made to 

Nova Scotia. f, , ^ lu u • f 4. ^ 

the producer upon the basis oi that grad- 
ing, brings under notice the very careful system of encourage- 
ment and control exercised by the Provincial Government. 

Under the Act for the Encouragement of Dairying passed in 
1914, known as "The Dairymen's Act," the Governor in 
Council was authorised to expend 5,000 dollars per annum in 
assisting the establishment of creameries, aiding winter-dairy- 
ing, and maintaining instructors in butter-making. A further 
sum of 20,000 dollars was later provided for the establishment 
of demonstration creameries and cheese factories, and the pur- 
chase of land necessary for the same. Other sums were autho- 
rised for the making good of any deficit in the maintenance 
of such demonstration creameries and cheese factories. 

The Act also provided for the registration of all creamery 
and cheese factory proprietors and generally ensured that all 
creameries and cheese factories should maintain a high standard 
of cleanliness and of sanitary and mechanical methods. Care- 
ful records of tests of samples of milk and cream delivered by 



856 



Agriculture Abroad. 



[Dec, 



producers were to be taken and kept for inspection, as well as 
delivered to each producer with payments for milk or cream. 

The " Dairymen's Association of Nova Scotia " was founded 
by a later Statute, and an annual grant of 1,000 dollars pro- 
vided for it. The main object of the Association was "the 
furthering of the dairy industry of Nova Scotia," and included 
the holding of an Annual Convention, the fostering of co-opera- 
tion amongst dairymen, the holding of local dairy meetings, 
exhibitions of dairy products, and the education of dairymen. 

Sufficient has been said to make it clear that the dairy in- 
dustry in Nova Scotia is progressing upon careful and well- 
conceived lines. To show how it has extended — and there is 
room for very considerable extension in the province — the 
amount of creamery butter produced in 1911 was 275,000 lb., 
and in 1919, 2,093,000 lb. Even so, in 1918, 68 per cent, of 
the butter manufactured was still home-made, but the patrons 
of the creameries are increasing in number annually. The 
average yield per cow is increasing slowly. The Government 
Bailways provide weekly refrigerator car services for butter, 
and producers can forward any amount from a 1 lb. package 
upwards for shipment at Halifax. It is expected that before 
long Nova Scotia will be able to ship butter in larger quan- 
tities to Great Britain and take its share in the market which 
awaits hioh-cuiss colonial butters in this country. 

****** 

The Noxious Weeds Act of the Legislative Assembly of Mani- 
toba, which came into operation last year and takes the place of 

_ . . J earlier legislation on the subiect, imposes on 

Injurious Weeds „ , . ,u ^x. a \ \ \ 
• -n/r -f v» Jjocal Authorities the duty oi eniorcmg 

the destruction, m particular, oi several 
kinds of thistles, and a variety of mustard which infests the corn- 
producing land of the Province. 

The Act provides for the appointment by every Local Authority 
of at least one weeds inspector, who is to be employed solely in 
the inspection of lands and the supervision of weed destruction 
during the summer months. In the case of unorganized terri- 
tory, similar appointments are made by the Lieutenant- 
Governor-in-Coancil. 

The onus of destroying the scheduled weeds is placed on the 
occupier of the land, or, in the case of unoccupied land, on the 
owner or his agent. The primary duty of an inspector is to see 
that the work is properly carried out in his district, but in case 



1922. 1 AcxRicri.TrRE Abroad. 857 



of failure to comply with the requirements of the Act, he has 
power to serve a notice requiring the occupier to cut down and 
destroy the weeds within a specified period, not exceeding fifteen 
days. If this warning is ineffective, the inspector may enter on 
the land and cause the weeds to be destroyed, when the occupier 
becomes liable to a fine, \^'ith a maximum of one year's imprison- 
ment in default of payment. 

The Act provides for the cost of destruction, in cases of failure 
to comply with notices served by an inspector, to be charged to 
tbe occupier, and collected in the same way as loc:al taxes. 

Two points of interest indicate the view of the Provincial 
Assembly that prevention is better than cure. In the first place, 
fines up to one hundred dollars may be inflicted on dealers who 
sell grain, grass seed, or food products containing a greater pro- 
portion of noxious weed seeds than is allowed by the regulations 
made under Dominion legislation. Secondly, provision is made, 
under penalties for failure to comply, for threshing machines to 
be cleaned after the completion of each operation and before the 
machine is moved, in order to prevent the seeding of clean 
land with weeds. 

One other special provision is, perhaps, worthy of men- 
tion. Owners of land are prohibited by the Act from 
letting any land upon which noxious weeds exist -^dthout giving 
the prospective tenant written notice of the condition of the land, 
as reported by the local inspector, and obtaining from him a 
statement that he is prepared to accept all responsibility. 



* * 



A PROCESS for seasoning timber by subjecting it to the action 

of a current of air containing a certain percentage of ozone has 

m. « heen invented by M. Otto, Professor at the 

TimDer-Seasomng , , ^ . ^, . , ^ 

Invention "^orbonne, Pans. The process is said to 
give the same result in about twenty days 
as would be obtained by natural seasoning in the course of several 
years. A micrographic examination is reported to show thut 
samples of oak and walnut which had been treated by the pro- 
cess show the same characteristics as seasoned wood, while the 
treatment does not change the colour of the wood. The Otto 
process is being worked by a French Company which has con- 
structed works at Seregno, near Milan, and will shortly build 
new works in the neighbourhood of Paris. 



858 



Ltcensinc of Stallions. 



[Dec, 



The International Labour Office quote figures issued by the 
United States Department of Agriculture which show that as 
Fall in Agricultural ^^^P^^^^ ^^^^ 1916 (the year preceding 
Wa es in the ^^^^ which the United States entered the 
TT -1. J «i 1. war) farm wages had increased by 100 per 
United States. . • ^nnr^ . u i • i 4. 

cent, in 1920. These rates Mere the highest 

recorded, and during 1921 they fell by about 35 per cent., 
leaving wages only about 30 per cent, above the 1916 level. 

* * * * * ■ 

LICENSING OF STALLIONS UNDER 
THE HORSE BREEDING ACT, 1918, 

SEASON 1922. 

The Horse Breeding Act of 1918 has been in operation since 
1st January, 1920. The main object of the Act is to prevent 
unsound stallions being travelled for service and there is every 
reason to think that this is now being secured. Applications for 
hcences to travel must be made to the Ministry between 1st 
November and 31st July, and all licences expire on the 31st 
October following the date of issue. 

The diseases and defects prescribed in the Horse Breeding 
Eegulations of 1919 for England and Wales as rendering 
stallions unfit for the service of mares are : — roaring, whistling, 
sidebone, cataract, ringbone (high or low), bone spavin, navicular 
disease, shivering, stringhalt, and defective genital organs. The 
returns given in Table II show that the first three named dis- 
eases or defects are the most prevalent. 

The number of stallions which were licensed by the Ministry 
during the year ended 31st October last was 3,479, of which 
3,129 were pedigree horses, the remainder not being entered, or 
accepted for entry, in any recognised stud book. In 165 cases 
applications for licences were refused by the Ministry. An 
appeal against the refusal of a licence was lodged under para- 
graph 12 of the Eegulations in 28 cases, and 12 of the appeals 
were successful. 

As in the preceding year, the Police co-operated with the 
Inspectors of the Ministry in securing observance of the Act by 
stopping stallions on the road and requiring the production of 
licences by the stallion leaders. Proceedings were taken by the 
Police in several cases where offences were proved, but there 
were fewer prosecutions than in previous years. It seems 
reasonable to assume therefore that evasions of the Act are 
diminishing. 



1922.J Licensing of Stallions. 859 













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Licensing of Stallions. 



[Dec, 





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1922.] 



Agricultural Returns. 



861 



Licences which were in use during the past travelKng season 
expired on October and siiould then have been returned to 
the Ministry. Holders of hcences who have not yet so returned 
them should do so immediately, whilst applications for licences 
or renewals for the 1923 season should be made at as early a 
date as possible to facilitate arran^iiements for the examination 
of the stalhons. Forms of application for a licence may be 
obtained from the Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries. 10, Whitehall Place, S.W.I. 

****** 

AGRICULTURAL RETURNS, 1922. 

PRODUCE OF CROPS IN ENGLAND AND WALES. 

Preliminavv Statement showing the estimated total produce and yield 
per acre of the Corn and Hay Crops in England and Wales in 1922, with 
comparisons for 1921, and the average yield per acre of the ten years 
1912^21. 



Crops. 


Estimated Total 
Produce. 


Acreage. 


Estimated Yield 
per Acre. 


Average 
of tlie 
TenYears 
1912-21. 


1922. 


1921. 


1922. 


1021. 


1922. 


1921. 




Quarters. 


Quarters. 


Acres. 


Acres. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Wheat 


7,649.000 


8,722,000 


1.966.826 


1,975,979 


311 


35-3 


30-7 


Barley 


5.060.000 


5,309,000 


1.363.812 


1 ,435.575 


29-7 


29m; 


30-i> 


Oats.!. 


9,281.00) 


10,033.000 


2.157.172 


2.147.594 


34-4 


37-4 


38-3 


Mixed Corn i. 


509.000 


570,000 


123.823 


134,898 


32-9 


33-8 




Beans 


839.000 


778.000 


272.068 


237,174 


24-7 


26-2 


27-3 


Peas 


261,000 


313,000 


122.717 


105.699 


170 


23 7 


24-7 




Tons. 


Tons. 






Cwt. 


Cict. 


Cwt. 


Seeds Hay* , 


1.732.000 


2,144.000 


1.527,646 


1,757,536 


22-7 


24-4 


2S-4 


MeadowHayf 


4.068.000 


3,195,000 


4.413.118 


4,052,450 


184 


15-8 


21-5 



" Hay from Clover, Suiiiioiu, aud Grasses under rotatiou. | Hay from Permanent G-rass. 



The corn crops of this year are generally less favourable than those of 1921, 
both as regards yield per acre and condition and quality of the grain. The 
unsatisfactory yields are due mainly to the spring drought, although the cold, 
wet summer also had a bad effect. Autumn-sown crops came through the 
winter fairly well, in spite of a rather severe check occasioned by cold Aveather 
in March and April, which also caused spring corn to germinate slowly. Spring- 
crops, where sown late, suffered most from the dry weather, and frequently 
came up thin plants, while in some districts frit fly and wireworm damaged 
the oats severely. Crops ripened slowly and unevenly, and, with unfavour- 
able weather at harvest, the ingathering was very protracted, and a fair 
proportion of the crops was harvested in rather damp condition. Wh(\\t, 
however, is of very fair quality, and winter oats are generally fairly satis- 
factory, but spring oats are of inferior quality, the grain being light. Mucii 
barley is discoloured, with a poor sample where there were two growths, and 
the proportion lit for malting is less than usual. 



862 



Agricui /ruR a l Return s . 



[Dec 



Wheat is the only corn cro]) to give an over-average yield, the yield per 
acre being estimated at 31-1 bushels, or nearly half a bushel above the average 
of the ten years 1912-21, but more than 4 bushels below the record crop of 
last year. Most eastern coimties obtained appreciably heavier yields than 
usual, Norfolk being an outstanding exception. The total production is 
estimated at 7,r»4'J,00() quarters, or 1,070,000 quarters less than in 11)21, but 
700,000 ([uarters greater than the pre war average. The total production of 
barley, 5,0(50,000 (piarters, is 250,000 tpuirters less than last year and, apart 
from 1915, is the smallest recorded since official returns were first collected in 
1885. The yield per acre is estimated at 29*7 bushels, or practically the same 
as in 1921^ and about Ij bushels pei' acre below average. Counties in which 
fen land predominates secured better crops than usual, but under-average 
yields were the rule in practically all other counties. The yield per acre of 
oats, 84*4 bushels, is 4 bushels per acre below the ten-year average. This 
yield per acre is also slightly under the lowest previously recorded. Yields 
were relatively the worst in Norfolk, Shropshire, Derby, and Stafford, but in 
hardly any counties were they up to average. The total production of 
■9,281,000 quarters is the smallest since 1912, and 750.000 quarters less than 
in 1921. Mixed Corn yielded 32*9 l)ushels per acre, and the total production 
■of 509,000 quarters is some 60,000 (juarters less than last year. As a result 
of the increased acreage, the total production of beans, 839,000 quarters, is 
()0,000 quarters greater than in 1921, in spite of a poorer crop. The yield of 
24'7 bushels [)er acre is Iv, bushels less than last year, and 2^ bushels below 
average. Peas are by far the worst crop on record, the yield per acre being 
estimated at only 17 bushels, or 7f bushels below the ten-year average, and 
1;,' bushels less than the previous lowest in 1885. The total production of 
261,000 quarters is 52,000 quarters less than last year, and lower than in any 
year, except 1916 when practically a similar total crop was obtained from an 
area about 30 per cent. less. 

The growth of hay was retarded by the cold, dry spring, and much of the 
seeds was a thin plant as a result of the drought of 1921, so that hay crops 
were also very unsatisfactory. "Most of the seeds hay was secured in good 
• condition, but the bulk of the meadow hay was more or less weathered, and 
the quality of a fair proportion was iuqiaired owing to delay in cutting. Seeds 
hay gave a total crop of only 1,732,000 tons, which is the smallest production 
since 1893, and about 400,000 tons less than in 1921. The yield per acre of 
22-7 cwt., is If cwt. less than last year, and 5| cwt. below the ten-year 
average. It will be understood that these figures apply to the area of seeds 
actually cut for hay, and take no account of the area of seeds ploughed up. 
Yields were very light in practically every county, though they were relatively 
better in the north and in Wales than in other parts of the country. Meadow 
hay yielded better than last year, being estimated at 18-4 cwt. per acre, 
against 15-8 cwt. in 1921, but still some 3 cwt. per acre below average. The 
acreage was greater than in 1921, so that the total production of 4,068,000 
tons shows a welcome increase of 870,000 tons. The total ({uantity of hay 
produced this year is therefore about 5,800,000 tons, or 460,000 tons more 
than in 1921, but still some 1,500,000 tons below the average of the ten 
years, 1912-21. 

The estimates of the potato and root crops will be issued later in the year. 



1922.] 



Foot- AN d- M oi i r ii Disease 



8G3 



PRODUCE OF HOPS. 
Preliminary statement showing the estimat(;<l total production of Hops in 
the years 1922 and 1921, with the acreage and estimated average yield per 
statute acre in each county of England in which Hops were grown ; and the 
average yield per acre of the ten years 11)12 — 1921. 



Counties, &c. 


Estimated Total 
Produce. 


Acreage ]-cti;rnetl 
on Ith June. 


Estimated 
Average Yield 
per Acre. 


Aver- 
age ol' 
the ten 
years 




1922. 


1921. 


1922. 


1921. 


1922. 


1921. 


1912 

to 
1921. 


f East 
Mid 

Kent -{ Weald ... 


Cvvt. 
46.000 
72.000 
88.000 


Cwt. 

39,000 
52,000 
.52,000 


Acres 
4,095 
5.528 
7,113 


Acres. 
4.005 
5!414 
6.034 


Cvvt. 
11-2 
13 1 
124 


Cwt. 
9-G 
9-7 
7-9 


Cvvt. 

11- 4 

12- 
10-7 


1 

I Total, Kent 


206.000 


143,000 


16.736 


16.053 


123 


8-9 


11-3 


Hants 

Surrey 

Sussex 

Hereford 

Worcester 
Other Counties* 


11.000 
2.200 
33.500 
30,000 
17,700 
I 500 


9.000 

i.r)00 

12,700 
33,000 
21.000 
760 


1.073 
217 
2.354 
3,945 
2.032 
95 


1.043 
196 
2.209 
3,522 
1.903 
S7 


10-3 
101 
14-2 
7 6 
87 
52 


8- 4 

7- 4 
5-7 

9- 5 
12-1 

8- 7 


9-9 

8- 2 

9- 9 
8-1 
8-7 
6-7 


Total 


301,000 


221.000 


26.452 


25.133 


114 


8-9 


10-4 



* Salop, Gloucester, Berkshire and Suffolk. 



Note. — The total production this year is estimated at 301,000 cwt., or 
77,000 cwt. more than last year, and 26,000 cwt. above the average of the ten 
years 1912-21. Except in East Kent the yields per acre were above average 
in the south-eastern counties, especially in Sussex where a heavy crop of 
14*2 cwt. per acre was obtained. In the western counties yields were not so 
satisfactory, being half a hundredweight below average in Herefordshire and 
just average in Worcestershire. Results this year were therefoie the reverse 
of those of last year, when the western counties had good crops and the south- 
eastern counties lighter crops than usual. 

****** 

Foot-and-Mouth Disease. — Since the outbreak at Harmonds worth, 
Middlesex, on 20th October, which was referred to in the last issue of The 
Journal, eight further outbreaks have occurred of which four were in the 
district to which restrictions were applied consequent upon the discovery of 
disease at Harmondswoith, the remaining four outl)ieaks being confirmed in 
the Woodstock district of Oxfordshire. 

In the Home Counties area, outbreaks were conlinned at Wa!ton-on-Thames 
(Surrey) on 28th October, Windlesham (Surrey) on 30th October, Staines 
(Middlesex) on 30th October, and Worplesdon (Surrey) on 13th November, 
but no connection could be traced between any of these and the original 
outbreak at Harmondsworth, nor were the later outbreaks apparently connected 
with each other. The outbreaks at Windlesham and Worplesdon rendered it 
necessary to extend the district subject to restrictions. The entire prohibition 
of movement of animals is now limited to five small areas around the other 
infected places. In the remainder of the scheduled area which has been 



864 



International Poultry Exhibition. [Dec, 1922. 



considerably reduced, inovenient is permissible by licence, and fat stock 
markets can be beld by licence subject to inspection.' 

The initial outbreak in Oxfordshire occurred on 25tli October, when two 
cases were confirmed at Woodstock. The usual Order was imposed in respect 
of an area with a radius of 15 miles of the infected places. Subsecjuently, two 
outbreaks occurred on 30th October and 4th November respectively, on 
premises in the vicinity of the earlier cases. The origin of the infection in 
this district cannot be ascertained, but all the 4 outbreaks were connected. 

In this district also the restrictions have been considerably modified and 
entire prohibition of movement applies only in respect of two small areas 
surrounding the infected premises. 

In all cases, the slaughter of all the affected animals and those in 
immediate contact has been carried out, involving 107 cattle, 2 sheep, 
207 pigs and 1 goat. 

Agricultural Research Scholarships and Fellowships.— 

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, on the recommendation of the 
Advisory Committee on Agricultural Science, and with the concurrence of the 
Development Commissioners and the Treasury, have awarded Research 
Scholarships^ of the value of £200 per annum for three years, to the 
following candidates : — 

Mr. N. C. Wright, University College, Reading (Dairying). 

Mr. W. L. Davies, University College, Aberystwyth (Animal Nutrition). 

Mr. Ronald C. Fisher^ Edinburgh University (Entomology). 

Mr. P. Halton, University College, Heading (Animal Nutrition). 

Mr. Edgar Thomas, University College, Aberystwyth (Agricultural 
Economics). 

The Ministry has also extended for a third year the 2-year scholarships 

previously awarded to : — 

Mr. J. H. Frew (Rothamsted Experimental Station) in Entomology ; 
and to 

Miss M. S. Lacey (Imi^erial College of Science) in Plant Bacteriology. 
These scholarships have been established in order to assist promising- 
science graduates to qualify as research workers with a view to their 
contributing to the development of agricultural science. 

Travelling Research Fellowships have been awarded to : — 

Mr. G. W. Robinson, of University College, Bangor, for a visit to 

America to study soil survey methods ; and to 
Col. W. A. Wood, of the School of Agriculture, Cambridge, for a visit 
to Kiel to study methods of treating sterility. 
The fellowships have been instituted to enable selected members of the 
staffs of institutions aided by the Ministry to visit foreign countries where 
research work on similar subjects is carried on and to study at first hand the 
methods followed there. 

International Poultry Exhibition. — An International Poultry 
Exhibition will be held at Liege on 20th — 22nd Jan. next, and entries of 
five or six pens of three birds each are invited from British breeders. Belgian 
poultry breeders are particularly interested in such breeds as Orpingtons, 
Minorcas, Sussex, and Dorkings. Inquiries should be addressed to the Sec- 
retary, International Exhibition of Aviculture, Societe Royale Union Avicole 
de Liege, Belgium. 



Printed under the authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office, 
By Metcliim & Son, Princes Street, Westminster, S.W. 1. 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGmCVLTTJIlE.— Advertisements. ix 



The FARMERS' WARDEN " 

FOR INSURANCE of 

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and GENERAL INDEMNITIES. 

For Best Hates and Terms apply — 

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INSURANCE COMPANY, LTD. 

ESTABLISHED 1875. 
Honoured with the Patronage of H.M. THE KING. 

Chief Office— IRONMONGER LANE, LONDON, E.G. 2. 

Manager and Secretary : R. R. WILSON. 



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Telephone: ROYAL 1195. 



ESTAB. 1882. 



TelefiTPams: "ASSESSOR." 



THE JOUENAL OF THE MINISTBY OF AGB.ICJJUHJJ'R'E. —Advertisements. 



BREEDERS' ANNOUNCEIVIENTS. 



CATTLE. 
SHORTHORNS. 

WELBBCK HERD OF PEDIGREE SHORTHORNS, the property of the Duke of Portland, K.a. Young Bulls and Heifers 
for sale, from the best strains. — Apply, Alex. Galbraith, Hunciecroft, Welbeck, Worksop. 

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LINCOLN RED SHORTHORNS. 

SCORER, CHARLES E., Bracebridgk Heath, Lincoln.— Lincoln Red Dairy Shorthorns. Prizes won in 1921 ; 2nd Breed 
Milking Trials, 3rd Open Butter Test (open to all breeds) Royal. Average yield 1907 to 1914,805 galls.; 1920-21, 821 galls. 
Official records kept. Young bulls from proved dairy cows on sale. 

THE STAPLEFORD PARK HERD. A few young Bulls from Royal Prize Winners always for sale from carefully tested 
milking strains only. Apply C, S. Hakvey, Wymondham, Oakham. 

SHEEP. 
SUFFOLKS. 

SHERWOOD, S. R., Playford, iPbWiCU.— Registered Flock 105. Holder of Bristol Champion Challenge Cup for Best Flock 
of the Breed, 1899 and 1919. Highest awards, Carcase Competition, Smithfield Club Show. Large winner at Royal and 
County Shows. Also Breeder of Pedigree Dairy Shorthorns. 

pias. 

LARGE WHITE. 

OHI'VERS & SONS, LTD., HiSTON, Oambs.— Over 1,U00 pigs bred annually. Breeding Stock live out in Large Grass Orchards. 
Stock Boars include Histon Wonder, 1st and Champion, Rciyal and Highland Shows. 1922; Spalding Kingmaker, 1st Royal 
and Peterborough Shows, 1922, and sire of numerous winners, including Reserve Champion Sow, Royal Show, 1922 ; Dalmeny 
Macbeth, 1st Highland and Edinburgh Shows, 1920. and own brother to 72u-guinea Sow. Young Stock always for Sale. 

COLSTON & EORROWFIELD HERDS OF LARGE WHITE PIGS, the property of R. Millington ICnowles, Esq., The Hall, 
Colston Bassett, Notts. — Numbers and quality equal to pre-war standard. — Particulars from AGENT, Estate Office, Colston 
Bassett, Notts. 

GREENALL, SIR GILBERT, BART., C.V.O., WALTON Hall, WARRINGTON. The Walton and Worsley Herd of Pedigree 
Large White Pigs. Selections of all ages for sale at moderate prices. Apply to the Manager, The Office, Bridge House, Higher- 
Walton, Warrington. Station : Warrington. Trains met by appointment. 

THE WARREN HERD OF PEDIGREE LARGE WHITE PIGS, the property of H, T.Williams, Esq.— Young Stock of the best 
strains for Sale, including a fine selection of in-pig Gilts. — Apply to Raymond Keer, Warren Home Farm, Broughton, Chester. 

MIDDLE WHITE. 

OHIVERS & SONS, LTD., HiSTON, Cambs.- Select Herd of Pedigree Middle Whites. Champion Cup for Best Middle White Pig at 
the Royal Mjow, 1919 and 1920 (won outright). Champion Boar, 1st and reserve Champion Sow, Royal Show, Derby ; 1st and 
2nd, Smithfield, 1921 ; 1st and Reserve Champion Boar and Sow, Royal Show, Cambridge ; 1st and Champion Boar and Sow, 
Highland Show, Dmnlries, 1922. Young Stock always for Sale. 

STAPLEFORD HERD OF MIDDLE WHITE PIGS. A few choice gilts and boars Sired by Royal Winners always for sale at 
reasonable prices. C. S. Harvey, Wymondham, Oakham. 

LARGE BLACK. 

PIOKWELL HERD, Pedigree Large Blacks. Young stock from best strains at reasonable prices.— CAPTAIN CLAUDE W. HEMP, 
Stainbridge Farm, Boluey, Sussex. 

NEWHOTJSE HERD ol Pedigree Large Black Pigs. Boars and Gilts from best strains.— Robert Fortune, Newhouse, 
Oranleigh, Surrey. 

BIDDINGS HERD PEDIGREE LARGE BLACKS, young stock from best strains always on hand.— JAMES HODGSON, Riddings, 
Longtown, Cum. 

POULTRY. 

BOOTHROYD, F.— Breeder, Exhibitor and Exporter of tlie finest Rhode Island Reds S.C. White Wyandottes, Light Sussex and 
Magpie Ducks. Breeding Pens, Stodk Birds, etc. Prices and all particulars on request. F. Bootdroyd, Shustoke, 
Coleshill, Warwickshire. 

51AJ0R, ARTHUR C— Breeder and Exhibitor thirty years. Champion Dark and Silver Grey Dorkings, "England's best 
fowl." Prizf^s at all Shows, and exported all over the world. Prices moderate. Eggs, Is. each. — Arthur C. Major, Ditton, 
Langley, Bucks. 

CHIVERS & SONS. LTD., HiSTON, Cambs.— High-clnss Utility White and Black Leghorns. White Wyandottes and Light Sussex. 
Reared on free range. Winners at leading Laying Competitions. Eggs and Stock Birds for Sale. Illustrated List free. 

WHITE' LEGHORN FARM.— Breeder. White Leghorns, ran in 500 units, producing 80,000 eggs per annum. Hatching Eggs 
from second and tliird season hens, mated to trap nested cockerel stock. 7s. 6d. per dozen, or 60s. per 100. — Woodmancott,. 
Micheldever. Hants. 



MISCELLANEOUS ADVEnTlSEUlEHTS— (Cheap Prepaid:). 

All applications for Advertisements in " The Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture" should be addressed to C. Vrhnon A 
Sons, Ltd., 38, Holborn Viaduct, London, E.G. 1. 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGBlCJJljTU'RF^.—Advertkemefits. xi 



F. HEWTHORN & CO. Ltd. 

Manufacturers of 

HIGH CLASS VETERINARY MEDICINES, 
POWDERS, OINTMENTS, ETC., 
MILK SUBSTITUTE, 
THRIVING MIXTURES FOR ALL ANIMALS. 
COD LIVER OIL CONDIMENT, 
HARNESS COMPO AND BOOT POLISH, 
HARNESS OIL, 
METAL AND OTHER POLISHES, 

DISINFECTANTS, 
SHEEP DIP, CATTLE WASHES, 
ANTISEPTIC SOAPS, OILS AND GREASES. 



70, Finsbury Pavement, London, E.C. 2. 

Prices and full particulars on application. 



N APTH ALI M 

Eradicates "dub," "Finger & Toe" Disease, &c. 

DESTROYS 'WHITE FLY.' 

A FEW TYPICAL TESTIMONIALS- 

''NAPTHALIM " FOR WHITE FLY ON TOMATOES. 

The Horticultural Colle(;e, Swanley, Kent : — 

" We find ' NAPTHALIM ' ABSOLUTELY clears Tomato Houses of White Fly." 
Mr. G. R. Gwilliam, The Aceps Nurseries: — 

"I FIND THE 'NAPTHALIM' MOST EFFECTUAL for White Fly on Tomatoes. It is 
THE VERY BEST THING I HAVE TRIED SO FAR." 
Mr. C. R. H, Weekes, Dukes, Bradninch, Devon : — 

"I have found 'NAPTHALIM' MOST EFFICIENT in Iteeping in check the white fly on 
Tomatoes. I used the 'NAPTHALIM' on three consecutive nights, and find THE HOUSES 
COMPLETELY CLEARED OF THE PESTS." 

Note Reduced Prices: — 

Small Trial Orders. i Ton Lot. 1 Ton 2 Tons. 4 Tons. NETT CASH. 

13/6 per Cwt. £6-0-0 £10-10-0 £19-10-0 £38-10-0 with order. 

Carriag^e Pasd any Eng^lish Station. Positively no extras. 

BAGS FREE. 1 cwt. or U cwt. at BUYER'S OPTION. IMMEDIATE DISPATCH. 

RENED Rtr S GO., 3, Old Hills, HounslOW. 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGmCVljTVBE.— Advertisements. 



The "SCOTT" SILO 

OP 

Reinforced Concrete 

IS UNEQUALLED. 

We do not advertise 
our Silos because 
they are cheap. We 
bring them to your 
notice because they 
are the best in design 
and construction, 
and require no up- 
keep, and because 
they have all the 
qualities of making 
ideal ensilage. 

Before you decide on 
any kind of Silo, 
you ought to consider 
the question of ser- 
vice or durability, 
along with value. 



.f"" f These considerations ex- 

plain the pre-eminence 
of the "Scott ■' Silo and 
the number built all 
over Great Britain and 
- - ' ' ■ ' " Ireland. 

JAMES SCOTT & SON, 

(ABERDEEN) LIMITED, 

483-485, Union St., Aberdeen. 




THE ''CLAYTON ' 




GASSING MACHINE 

for DESTRUCTION OF RATS, RABBITS, &C. 

Producing sulphurous gas of high strength 
without danger to operator or domestic 
animals. 

Unlike Poisons, Virus and Trapping, it 
destroys not only Adult Vermin but also 
the young in the nests. 

Used by — 
Estate Owners, Farmers, &c., &c. 

Full Particulars from — 

CLAYTON FIRE EXTINGUISHING & DISINFECTING CO. LTD. 
22, Craven Street, Strand, Xiondon, W.C.2. 

. fRESSlCH & Campbell, 118, Qaeen St., Glasgow. 
Agents -^^^ 0^ D^y^ Church House, Lord Street, Liverpool. 




Certain 
Destruc- 
tion to 
RATS 
and 
iVIiCE. 



Consult the 
well-known 
Specialists in the 
destruction of 
Vermin, 

H&LLER LABORATORIES, 

LIMITED, 

Proprietors of preparations for 

the destroying of Vermin, 
(Dept. H), 325, Borough High St., 
London, S.E.I . 





The ''2 minute'' 

Harness 
Repairer- 
Making harness repairs with BIFURCATED 
RIVETS is simplicity itself. Whenever a 
strap goes, just slip in a rivet and you have 
a strong, neat job. Every carter should carry 
them. 

Bifiircated 
Rivets 



are stocked by most ironmongers. If you 
cannot buy them locally, we will send you a 
good-sized box of assorted sizes for a special 
price of 2/-. 

Bifurcated and Tabular 
Rivet Co., Ltd. 

AYLESBURY BUCKS 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF kORlCXjJjIVRE.— Advertisements, xiii 



STARVED CROPS 

MEAN 

STARVED PROFITS. 

I^IIVIE THE 

Feed your land with Lime. Here are six good 
reasons for api)lying Lime to your soil : — 
(i) If the soil is acid. (2) If sulphate of ammonia or super- 
phosphate are used. (3) If the soil is clay and requires to 
be made more open and friable. ^4 If the tilth needs 
improving. (5) If there is '"Finger and Toe Disease" in 
turnips, or "Clover Sickness" is met with. (6) If peat 
tends to form or the decomposition of organic matter in the 
soil is incomplete. 

Lime can be applied in various ways, viz : — 
Burnt Lime : 1-2 tons per acre. 
Ground Carbonate of Lime : 2-3 tons per 
acre. 

Lime may be obtained as quick lime, either lump, 
ground or slaked, or in the form of ground chalk, 
i.e., Carbonate of Lime. 

You cannot use too much Carbonate of Lime. It 
is easily assimilated in the soil and easy to handle. 
Make the test without delay. 

Orders executed promptly. 
DELIVERIES MADE BY TRACTOR OR MOTOR DIRECT TO FARMS 
WITHIN 20 MILES OF LIME WORKS. LOW PRICES GIVEN FOR 
HAULAGE. 

Price for GROUND CARBONATE OF LIME 15/- ton loaded m 
bulk F.O.R. COULSDON. 

LIME BURNERS. 

LuiE Works : Head Office : 

Coulsdon (L.B.S.C.Ry.) Victoria Wharf, Croydon. 

Phone : Purley 10. Phone : Groydon 1104. 

Telegt ams : " Ctrmnt Croiidcui." 



To Milk Prodycers. 

We are always Buyers of 

WELL-COOLED 
DAIRIES OF MILK. 

A Plentiful Supply of Churns. 
Regular Payments. 



UNITED DAIRIES (Wholesale) LTD. 

34, Palaee Court, Bayswater, 

LONDON, W.2. 

Telephone — 4921 Park. 

Telegrams—" Dairydom," Netting, London 



TheNetting' 
you will have 
eventually— 

Faultless 




BECAUSEit lies dead fiat 
without curves or bulges 
and gives no trouble. 
It is made to stand heavy- 
strains too, "being of 
fine grade wire, galva- 
nized after manufacture. 

High quality and low price is 
another combination that makes 
"Faultless" the Netting you 
should test NOW. 

Send us particulars of your require- 
ments and we will gladly quote carriage 
paid prices for large or small quantities, 
direct from works. 




y-tt » r t a g w a M 



a M J Mr- 



A SILO ON EVERY FARM 





If you want to knoiu all 
about Silos arid Silage, 
•write for our 20 pa^e 
book, ^uhich will be sent 
post free on mentioning 
this paper. 



is the Farmer's insur- 
ance against shortage 
of food and drought. 
Prepare for next sea- 
son's drought and erect 
one of our 

Creosoted Wood Stave Silos 

The quality and sound 
consti-uction of our Silos 
are the best and cheap- 
est obtainable. The 
advantages in our make 
are : — 

Extra Strong con- 
struction. 

Secure Anchorage. 

Hinged Doors. 

Convenience in Filling 
and Emptying. 

Durability & Stability. 



English Brothers Ltd 



INCORPORATED w,ih GABRI tL . W>\DIE & ENGLISH 



WISBECH, 



xiv THE JOURNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGElCVhTVBE.— Advertisements, 



If you want 
to make 
money— 




The "EC-onom-IC" METAL SILOS 

are tlie ACNOWLEDGED BEST. SEASON 1923. 

A new range of silos is being introduced at considerably 
reduced prices to be known as the " EC-onom-iC " 
POPULAR Silo. 

The original range will be continued a« the 
« EC-onom-IC" PREMIER Silo, and will embody 
additional features of proved utility. 

Both types can be purchased, it desired, Without 
Capital Outlay. 

Full particulars on request, or from STAND No. 31, 
SMITHFIELD SHOW. 

THE GEO. H. GASCOIGNE CO., Ltd. (A.O.), 
27/28, Market Place, Reading. 

^ Phone: Reading i^ig. Telegrmns : Gascoignes, Readin^c. 
And at "WESTMINSTER, S.W.I. 



—Make Silage ! 



SAFETY FIRST ! 



AVOID BOTULISM 



BY USINQ 



ii 



55 



RATSTICKER 



The non-poisonous Rat and 
Mouse Catching Device 

On Sale at leading Chemists and Stores 

Fu/I instructions and descriptive pamplilets 



I ins each 1/-, 1/9, 2/6, 

or from Sole Manufacturers (post free, 1/4, 2/3, 3/3) 
B. WiNSTONE & SONS, Ltd., 100 101, Shoe Lane. London, E.C.4 



1. Stapleton 6 Sons, Ltd. 

MILK & CREAM CONTRACTORS. 



MILK and CREAM 

Supplies available fpom- over 
500 Fapms. 

Personal supervision, and no trouble 
spared to give satisfaction. 



In no way connected with any othep 
firm distributing- milk by poad in the 
London districts. 



Ap2)ly to Chief Offices : — 

BROOKLANDS DAIRIES, 

Stoke Newington, N.16. 

Telephone— DALSTON 164. 



AUTUMN APPLICtTIONS 



OF 



POTASH 

give the best results on Grass 
Land and Winter Cereals. 



" Seeds " and Meadow Hay respond best to 
both Phosphates and Potash. 

Winter Cereals on light land pay for Potash 
dressings before sowing. 



For sound information and 
literature on use of Potash : 

G. A. COWIE, M.A., B.Sc, A.I.C., 
39, Victoria Street, 
Westminster. S.W. 1. 



For prices of all Potash 
Fertilisers : 

F. W. BERK & Co.. Ltd., 
1, renchurch Avenue, E.G. 3. 



THE JOUENAL OF THE MINISTEY OF AGEICULTUEE.— idreHi.semen/s. xv 



Established 1797, 



KEEVIL & KEEVIL, 

Poultry, Game. Rabbit and Meat Salesmen, 
228/234, Central Markets, London, E.C.I, 

SOLICIT CONSIGNMENTS 
OF LIVE AND DEAD 

POULTRY, RABBITS, 
GAME, PORK, &c. 

HIGHEST MARKET PRICES PAID. 



Correspondence Invited. 



Bankers : 
London Joint City & Midland, 
Charterhouse Street, E.C. 

Telegrams : Phone : 

"Keevil, Smithfield, London." City 5096. 

(Private Ex.) 



Fertilisers and Feeding Materials. 

Specially prepared Mauures for 
Auiumn Wheat, Winter Grass, &o. 

Basic Slag Ground Slag Phosphate 

Bone Meals Superphosphates 
Castor ]\leals Sulphate of Ammonia 
Rape Meals Nitrate of Soda 

Fish Meals Nitrate of Lime 

Potash Salts and other Fertilisers. 

Linseed and Cotton Cakes, Decorticated Cotton 
Cakes and Meals, and other Feeding Articles. 

Clover, Grass and Root Seeds. 

HY. RICHARDSON & COMPY., 

Skeldergate Bridge Works, YORK. 



Lancashire, Cheshire, Shropshire & North Wales. 
Messrs. BOULT, SON & MAPLES, 

VALUERS. SURVEYORS, ESTATE AGENTS, AND 
PROPERTY AUCTIONEERS. 
Offices: 5, COOK STREET, LIVERPOOL. 

Telegrams — "Acres," Liverpool. 
r("i^/(«7ies— 187 Bank — i lines. 
Estates, Farms, Besidential and Business Properties only. 
Perioiiical Sales of Property at Liverpool, Chester and Preston. 



All applications for Advertisements in 

"The Journal of the Ministry of Agriculture" 

should be addressed to 

C. VERNON & SONS, LTD., 

38, Hoi born Viaduct, 

London, E.C. 



I 



LEARN BY POST 

TO make farming pay really well. V7e have trained 
hundreds to succeed. Why not you ? 

WE have courses of instruction in every tranch cf 
Mixed, Stock, Arable and Dairy Farming, Veterinary 
Science, Farm Accounts, &c. 



ALSO a special course in Land Agency for those going 
in for the management of landed estates. 

THE College has been established IS years. Send 
postcard for a free prospectus to The Agricultural 
Correspondence College (Sec. N;, Ripon. 




Y O R K S HIRE 

INSURANCE COMPANY Limited. 

LIVE - STOCK INSURANCE 

A SPECIALITY. 

SHOW AND TRANSIT RISKS 

PKOMPTLY ARRANGED. 



Chief Offices 



York: ST. HELEN'S SQUARE. 
London: BANK BUILDINGS, PRINCES ST., E.C.2. 

Brsmches and Agrencies throughout the Kiupdoni. 



The Journal of the Ministry of Agricuiture. 

Net Sale Certificate. 



I hereby certify that the average 
monthly net sales of The Journal 
of the Ministry of Agriculture, all 
editions carrying advertisements, 
after deducting all free vouchers, 
complimentary and advertising 
copies, and all returns, for the half 
year ending 30th September, 1921, 
were 9,687 copies per issue. 

In addition to sales, the average 
number of copies distributed to 
Officials of the Ministry, County 
Inspectors, Agricultural Com- 
mitteeis, Agricultural Societies, and 
agricultural experts and writers, was 
1,187 motithly, which, while not 
being a sale circulation, is never- 
theless effective and guaranteed. 

(Signed) F, L. C. Floud, 

Secrftai ij and Accovnfi)i(j OjHcc.r. 
7th NorfiiiibPT. 1921. 

Sole Agents for Advertii^enien: s : 
C. VERNON & SONS, LIMITED, 
38. Holborn Viaduct, London, E.C.I 



XVI 



THE JOUENAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGBIGJJIjTJjBE.— Advertisements. 



SPRAYING 

AND 

LIME WASHING 

will I'REVENT disease in 
Fruit Trees and Animals. 



VERMOREL "ECLAIR" SPRAYERS to carry out this work efficiently and 
economically are ALWAYS READY TO BE DESPATCHED AT ONCE. 

Various types have been illustrated and described in past numbers of the Journal. 

They include : 

3J pint Hand Sprayer. 




6, 11 <& 22 gallon Wheeled Sprayers. 
Dry Sprayers. 

66 gallon Horse Drawn Potato and 
Charlock Sprayer. 

Catalogue and full particulars from 

COOPER, PEGLER & CO., Ltd., 24b, Christopher St., E.C.2. 



31 gallon Knapsack 
4 gallon Bucket. 
Extension Lances. 




British Friesians 

WHICH HAVE PRODUCED 

47 2,000 gallon Cows. 

17 10-gallon-a-day Cows. 

5 1,000 lbs. Butter Cows. 

The Dairy Show Champion for two 
years in succession. 

The Silcock Cup Winner for two 
years in succession. 

Information gladly given by — 

BRITISH FRIESIAN CATTLE SOCIETY, 

4, SOUTHAMPTON ROW, LONDON, W.C.I. 
OR at] 

~1 STAND 478 at the ROYAL SHOW at CAMBRIDGE. E 



THE JOUKNAL OF THE MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE.— ^dreriise7nenis. 



EPHOS BASIC 
PHOSPHATE 

A radio-active phospJiatic fertiliser^ 
containing 60 - 65 % Plwspkates. 

HIGHLY SOLUBLE. 




For grain and roots " EPHOS will give results 
comparable to superphosphate and basic slag, while 
it excels both in the promotion of leaf and stem. 

" EPHOS counteracts soil acidity. 

" EPHOS " is particularly well adapted for mixing 

in compound xnanures. 



CROOKSTON BROS., 

38, Grosvenor Gardens, London, S.W.J . ''ttTc-Sr.^ 



THE JOURNAL OF THE MINIST] 



AMNH LIBRARY 



100206035 



-Advertisements. 




mam Lihe 



Lump Of? GROUND. 

To jRtt CultWators of Land: 

USE OUR GENUINE GROUND LIM 

Specially Finely Ground for Mechanical Distribution. 



GROUND LIME is a FERTILISER, and secures 
HEAVIER CROPS with a MINIMUM of EXPENSE 



GROUND LIME) if applied to the land in quantities of about 10 cwt. or more 
per acre per annum, will produce greatly augmented CROPS, whether of Cereals, 

Clovers, or Leguminous Plants. 

THIS LIME is a SOIL FOOD, an INSECTICIDE, a FUNGICIDE, 
and the BEST REMEDY for FINGER-AND-TOE " DISEASE in 

TURNIPS, &e. 

The Works are favourably situated for prompt delivery in 
EASTERN, SOUTH IVIIDLAND and SOUTHERN COUNTIES. 



For Prices of 

AGRICULTURAL LIME 

AND 

GROUND 
CARBONATE OF LIME 

Write to— 

THE CEMENT MARKETING COMPANY, LIMITED, 

LIME DEPARTMENT, 

8, LLOYDS AVENUE, LONDON, E.C.3. 

TelegmpUe Addrett:-" PORTLAND, FEN, LONDON." 

Telephmu No:— 5690 AVENUE (Private Exchange).